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virtually transparent, highly conductive carbon material in which the atoms are organized into a honeycomblike arrangement and form a thin sheet that is one atom thick. Andre GeimGeim, Sir Andre Konstantinovich,
1958–, Russian-born Dutch physicist, Ph.D. Russian Academy of Sciences, 1987. He was a professor at the Univ. of Nijmegen in the Netherlands from 1994 to 2001, when he joined the faculty at the Univ. of Manchester, England.
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 and Konstantin NovoselovNovoselov, Sir Konstantin Sergeevich,
1974–, Russian-British physicist, Ph.D. Univ. of Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2004. He has been a research associate at the Univ. of Manchester, England, since 2001.
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 won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the material (2004) and experiments concerning its properties. The structure and properties of graphene make it suitable for a broad range of applications, and it is being investigated for possible use in such products as smart displays, ultrafast transistors, tough composites, and quantum-dot computers. Some of the material's unique properties—electrons move through graphene like massless waves—also have allowed physicists to use simple benchtop laboratory equipment, rather than expensive telescopes and particle accelerators, to test quantum mechanical predictions, and it has been used to contain liquids for for study with electron microscopes.


(1) See also grapheme.

(2) A carbon layer one atom thick derived from the mineral graphite. Looking like chicken wire and considered a 2D material, graphene is naturally found as layers making up graphite. The graphene layers are separated by various exfoliation methods.

Extraordinary Properties
Graphene's mechanical, electrical, optical, thermal and chemical properties are outstanding, and it has been touted as a "miracle material." The 2D sheets can be layered together, fabricated into wires (nanoribbons), flakes, disk-shaped platelets or quantum dots for many applications. In addition, graphene can be added to metals, ceramics, plastics and rubber to make products stronger, lighter, more heat resistant or more flexible.

As the most conductive material on the planet, in time, graphene is expected to supplant silicon in electronics fabrication; however, hurdles must be overcome. For example, graphene has no bandgap; the most essential semiconductor attribute. See bandgap.

Graphene is expected to be a foundation nanotechnology component that revolutionizes industries and future products. See nanotube and nanotechnology.

A 2D Graphene Layer
Resembling chicken wire, graphene layers are separated from graphite.

Graphene - From Soup to Nuts
Ron Mertens' Graphene Handbook educates the reader from the ground up about graphene's properties, shapes, uses and potential. A must read for anyone who wants to truly learn about this amazing material. For more information, visit
References in periodicals archive ?
The paper, entitled "Superhydrophobic inkjet printed flexible graphene circuits via direct-pulsed laser writing," describes how Claussen and the nanoengineers in his research group use inkjet printing technology to create electric circuits on flexible materials.
The MOU gives 2050 Motors exclusive rights to utilise and distribute this graphene product for the next generation electric vehicle battery market worldwide.
Graphene has been hailed as the world's first 2D material.
Our simple and cost-effective way of producing multifunctional graphene textiles could easily be scaled up for many real-life applications, such as sportswear, military gear, and medical clothing.
Artificial graphene has already been demonstrated in other systems such as optical, molecular, and photonic lattices but the semiconductor breakthrough offers more possibilities to modulate electronic behavior.
Running concurrently is an experiment investigating how graphene can improve efficiency in heat transfer in loop heat pipes - cooling systems used extensively in satellites and aerospace instruments.
In recent years, graphene which is composed of two-dimensional single or few layers of [sp.
Graphene assumes a flat, hexagonal lattice structure, which allows relatively low resistance to the flow of electrons.
Nancy Wu, Research Director of Innova Research commented: "Considering the cost-effective factor, Graphene is still facing a lot of incumbent competitors, such as activated carbon in tires and friction/thermal management materials.
MPs on the Science and Technology Select Committee have recently questioned the progress being made in commercialising graphene, after 120 million [pounds sterling] of public funding was invested into research on the material over the past five years.
Key words: Thermal treatment, Centrifuge, Concentration, Graphene layers, TEM, SEM