Gratian


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Related to Gratian: Valentinian II, Peter Lombard

Gratian

(grā`shən), 359–83, Roman emperor of the West (375–83). At the death of his father, Valentinian IValentinian I
, 321–75, Roman emperor of the West (364–75). He held high military rank under Julian and Jovian. After the death of Jovian, Valentinian was proclaimed emperor; he appointed his brother Valens coregent in the East.
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, he accepted the army's election of his brother, Valentinian IIValentinian II,
371?–392, Roman emperor of the West (375–92), son of Valentinian I. Upon the death of his father, he was proclaimed emperor with his brother Gratian as coregent. After the death (378) of Valens, Gratian made Theodosius I ruler in the East.
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, as his colleague. Gratian took Britain, Gaul, and Spain as his own share of the empire and acted as guardian for Valentinian in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. After the death of Valens (378), he made Theodosius ITheodosius I
or Theodosius the Great,
346?–395, Roman emperor of the East (379–95) and emperor of the West (394–95), son of Theodosius, the general of Valentinian I.
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 emperor of the East. Gratian fought successfully against the barbarians. He appointed St. AmbroseAmbrose, Saint
, 340?–397, bishop of Milan, Doctor of the Church, b. Trier, of Christian parents. Educated at Rome, he became (c.372) governor of Liguria and Aemilia—with the capital at Milan.
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 as an adviser and vigorously attacked paganism, ordering the removal of the altar of Victory from the senate house and the confiscation of the revenues of the vestal virgins and refusing the title pontifex maximus. Toward the end of his reign he neglected public affairs for hunting. In 383 he was assassinated by the followers of Maximus.

Gratian,

fl. 1140, Italian legal scholar, founder of the science of canon lawcanon law,
in the Roman Catholic Church, the body of law based on the legislation of the councils (both ecumenical and local) and the popes, as well as the bishops (for diocesan matters).
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. Almost nothing is known of his life beyond the fact that he was a monk, almost certainly Camaldolite, and that he taught at the convent of saints Felix and Nabor (San Felice) in Bologna. He was apparently very learned in scholasticism and Roman law. His great work, commonly known as the Decretum, appeared c.1140. It is a synthesis of church law, divided into three parts: the first deals with sources and principles of canon law and with ecclesiastical persons; the second, with ecclesiastical jurisdiction and property and to some extent with marriage and penance; the third, with sacraments and liturgy. Gratian, by his method, makes the compilation a systematic treatise; his commentaries, the dicta Gratiani, make up a large part of the work. The Decretum was used by the later popes and became the kernel of the Corpus juris canonici.

Bibliography

See study by S. Chodorow (1972).

Gratian

Latin name Flavius Gratianus. 359--383 ad, Roman emperor (367--383): ruled with his father Valentinian I (367--375); ruled the Western Roman Empire with his brother Valentinian II (375-83); appointed Theodosius I emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (379)
References in periodicals archive ?
Gratian Murray Integrated School in Barangay Granada, Bacolod City were advised to go home on Tuesday, after some female students collapsed due to the alleged case of exorcism or hysteria.
Col Ramanathan was the last of the senior Artillery officers of that time I had the pleasure and privilege to serve and associate with from Colonel Lyn Wickramasuriya, Lt Cols HT Gunesekera, Eardly McHeyser and MA Jeevasoma, Brigadier Justus Rodrigo, Major Generals Jayantha Jayaratne, Duleep Wickramanayake and Gratian Silva.
Burchard's collection of laws may be the most important before Gratian. Here, we find comment on superstition, night-riding, the devil, pagan Diana, practice of the evil arts, and the need to expel such practitioners as heretics in order to preserve the faith from the plague of heresy.
In a retrospective study of 1854 patients with NF-PNETs ≤2 cm, Gratian et al .
According to Ammianus, he was motivated in part by a desire to match the successes of his counterpart Gratian, the Western Roman Emperor, who had recently defeated the Alemanni, a Germanic tribe in Western Europe who had invaded Pannonia in central Europe.
(10.) Morris SD, Mallipeddi R, Oyama N, Gratian MJ, Harman KE, Bhogal BS, et al.
Gratian, a monk of Bologna, published in 1140 a systematic study of canon law known as the Decretum, which rapidly became accepted as authoritative.
Despite claims that it is the oldest continuing legal system in the Western world, canon law, in the sense of a volume of laws that applied to the whole Church, only became a reality around 1140 CE when an Italian monk, Gratian compiled and tried to harmonize canon law up until that time.
In 380 CE, three Caesars, Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II, delivered the 'Edict of Thessalonica' in order that all their subjects should profess the faith of the Bishop of Rome.
For example, he records that "Ambrose once had to intercede for a man who was being led off to be executed for treason simply because he had said that the present emperor (the young Gratian) was unworthy of his father, Valentinian" (p.
The entire legal systems which are now in place in all the democratic countries in the world were carefully crafted and codified in the thirteenth century (by Accursius) based on the Decretum of Gratian who had codified the Canon Law of the Church a century earlier in 1139-41.