Gratian


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Gratian

(grā`shən), 359–83, Roman emperor of the West (375–83). At the death of his father, Valentinian IValentinian I
, 321–75, Roman emperor of the West (364–75). He held high military rank under Julian and Jovian. After the death of Jovian, Valentinian was proclaimed emperor; he appointed his brother Valens coregent in the East.
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, he accepted the army's election of his brother, Valentinian IIValentinian II,
371?–392, Roman emperor of the West (375–92), son of Valentinian I. Upon the death of his father, he was proclaimed emperor with his brother Gratian as coregent. After the death (378) of Valens, Gratian made Theodosius I ruler in the East.
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, as his colleague. Gratian took Britain, Gaul, and Spain as his own share of the empire and acted as guardian for Valentinian in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. After the death of Valens (378), he made Theodosius ITheodosius I
or Theodosius the Great,
346?–395, Roman emperor of the East (379–95) and emperor of the West (394–95), son of Theodosius, the general of Valentinian I.
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 emperor of the East. Gratian fought successfully against the barbarians. He appointed St. AmbroseAmbrose, Saint
, 340?–397, bishop of Milan, Doctor of the Church, b. Trier, of Christian parents. Educated at Rome, he became (c.372) governor of Liguria and Aemilia—with the capital at Milan.
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 as an adviser and vigorously attacked paganism, ordering the removal of the altar of Victory from the senate house and the confiscation of the revenues of the vestal virgins and refusing the title pontifex maximus. Toward the end of his reign he neglected public affairs for hunting. In 383 he was assassinated by the followers of Maximus.

Gratian,

fl. 1140, Italian legal scholar, founder of the science of canon lawcanon law,
in the Roman Catholic Church, the body of law based on the legislation of the councils (both ecumenical and local) and the popes, as well as the bishops (for diocesan matters).
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. Almost nothing is known of his life beyond the fact that he was a monk, almost certainly Camaldolite, and that he taught at the convent of saints Felix and Nabor (San Felice) in Bologna. He was apparently very learned in scholasticism and Roman law. His great work, commonly known as the Decretum, appeared c.1140. It is a synthesis of church law, divided into three parts: the first deals with sources and principles of canon law and with ecclesiastical persons; the second, with ecclesiastical jurisdiction and property and to some extent with marriage and penance; the third, with sacraments and liturgy. Gratian, by his method, makes the compilation a systematic treatise; his commentaries, the dicta Gratiani, make up a large part of the work. The Decretum was used by the later popes and became the kernel of the Corpus juris canonici.

Bibliography

See study by S. Chodorow (1972).

Gratian

Latin name Flavius Gratianus. 359--383 ad, Roman emperor (367--383): ruled with his father Valentinian I (367--375); ruled the Western Roman Empire with his brother Valentinian II (375-83); appointed Theodosius I emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (379)
References in periodicals archive ?
Gratian spoke of deaconesses numerous times in the Decretum, but it was the Chalcedonian canon earlier mentioned that the glossators were most interested in.
In the 11th and 12th centuries, canon law as we know it today, a separate set of laws that apply to the Universal Church, started to develop through scholars, such as Burchard, Ivo and Gratian.
Gratian Murray Integrated School; Vista Alegre-Granada Relocation Elementary School, A.
The sole source for this story is the eastern ecclesiastical historian Sozomenus, who was writing fifty years after the death of Ambrose and more than sixty years after that of Gratian (HE 7.
The entire legal systems which are now in place in all the democratic countries in the world were carefully crafted and codified in the thirteenth century (by Accursius) based on the Decretum of Gratian who had codified the Canon Law of the Church a century earlier in 1139-41.
It consists of a hollow cylinder of hammered bronze, 23-26 cm in diameter, attached to a circular base, with an inscribed text at the top, <<Regulation of the modius according to the sacred command of our lords Valentinian, Valens and Gratian, most invincible emperors, by order of Marius Artemius, vir clarissimus, serving as Vicar of the Prefect (36), under the care of Potamius and Quentianus, principales>> (37).
The third lecture will be the Dr A N S Kulasinghe memorial lecture that will be delivered at the Institution of Engineers on October 26, 2013 by Engineer Gratian A.
By launching this promotional campaign customers have the chance to win attractive prizes for three months in addition to advantages such as zero commission when applying for the card, transactions with retailers from Romania and abroad and the possibility to pay bills directly at the lender's ATMs and access a limit of credit with advantageous interest rates," says Radu Gratian Ghetea, president of CEC Bank.
The classic conception of just war defined in the historical tradition, by contrast, also used Augustine as a major source, but worked from a very different set of passages, first collected by the twelfth-century canonist Gratian.
As Peters and Cohen point out, even Gratian felt it necessary to emphasize that