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a mountain system stretching from the west-northwest to the east-southeast between the Black and Caspian seas, from the town of Anapa to the mouth of the Sumgait River. The system’s length is more than 1,100 km, and width, up to 180 km. The Glavnyi, or Vodorazdel’nyi and Bokovoi ranges arise in the axial part and are accompanied by numerous advance and transverse ridges. The elevation is to 5,642 m (Mount El’brus). The Greater Caucasus is divided into three parts—the Western Caucasus (to El’brus), the Central Caucasus (between El’brus and Kazbek), and the Eastern Caucasus (east of Kazbek). Mountain forest and mountain meadow landscapes dominate the slopes of the ranges. There is significant present-day freezing over an area of 1,780 sq km.