Greenland Sea


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Greenland Sea,

arm of the Arctic Ocean, off the northeast coast of Greenland between Svalbard and Jan Mayen Island. It is the main outlet of the Arctic Ocean to the Atlantic. Because of drifting arctic ice, the northern part is rarely open to navigation.

Greenland Sea

 

a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between the islands of Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Med-vezhii, and Spitsbergen. Area, 1,205,000 sq km; average depth, 1,444 m (maximum, 4,846 m); average volume of water, 1,740 cu km.

The bed of the Greenland Sea is a basin bounded on the east by the submarine Mohns and Knipovich ridges and on the south by the Greenland-Iceland Ridge. On the west the floor of the basin at first rises gradually and then, at the edge of the continental slope, rises rapidly in the direction of the relatively broad shelf of Greenland, which has many hills and troughs. The climate is arctic and severe. Northerly winds prevail year round. The average air temperature in winter is from —25° to -30° C; the average air temperature in summer is from 0° to 6° C. There is frequent cloud cover. The cold East Greenland Current runs along the western part of the sea, carrying with it floating ice all year long; a branch of the Gulf Stream, the warm Spitsbergen Current, flows along the eastern part. There is a vast cyclonal whorl in the central part of the sea. The average water temperature at the surface is a bit lower than - 1°C in February in the north, l°-2° C in the south and southeast, below 0° in August in the northwest, and up to 6° C in the south and east. The temperature at the floor is under -1° C. The salinity in the east is 33.0–34.5 parts per thousand (‰); in the west, 32.0% and less; and at the bottom of the ocean, 34.9‰. The tides are semidiurnal and reach a height of 4.4 m. The color of the water is predominantly green. There is whaling, (Greenland) seal hunting, and fishing. The ports of Longyear City and Barentsburg are located on the fjord of Isfjorden (Spitsbergen), and Akureyri in Iceland.

Greenland Sea

the S part of the Arctic Ocean, off the NE coast of Greenland
References in periodicals archive ?
The warming of the deep regions of the Greenland Sea is caused by an imbalance in ocean circulation.
The crustaceans that the whales feed on drift with the strong southward current along the ice edge from the northeast toward the southwest parts of the Greenland Sea over the summer; the large outflow of Arctic water in the Fram Strait area and concomitant ecological impacts are the likely reason for the atypical movement patterns of bowhead whales in this area.
Recent sightings of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in Northeast Greenland and the Greenland Sea.
The colour of the Greenland Sea and the migration of the Greenland whale and narwhal.
For their study, they analysed temperature data from 1950 to 2010 in the abyssal Greenland Sea, which is an ocean area located just to the south of the Arctic Ocean.
Since 1993, oceanographers from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), have carried out regularly expeditions to the Greenland Sea on board the research ice breaker Polarstern to investigate the changes in this region.
The Greenland Sea is just a small part of the global ocean.
Without SAR to give us insight into thecirculation patterns, I don't think one can study places like the Greenland Sea,' says Shuchman, who has just returned from the Fram Strait.
3), the September ice is confined mostly to the Arctic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, whereas the March ice extends southward to cover (to an ice concentration of at least 15%) the entire Arctic Ocean, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Hudson Bay, and the Kara Sea, plus large portions of the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, Baffin Bay, the far western Labrador Sea, the western Greenland Sea, and the northern Barents Sea.
For a March example, only one year had ice in the Greenland Sea extending south to the north coast of Iceland (Fig.
Clearly the Sea of Okhotsk and the eastern Barents Sea had much longer sea ice seasons in 1979 than in 1996, whereas Baffin Bay and portions of the Greenland Sea had longer sea ice seasons in 1996 than in 1979 (Fig.
We believe there has been a disturbance in the sinking of cold water in the Greenland Sea," says Dr Norman Davis, deputy leader of the Sea Ice Group at the Scott Polar Research Institute.