Greenland Sea


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Greenland Sea,

arm of the Arctic Ocean, off the northeast coast of Greenland between Svalbard and Jan Mayen Island. It is the main outlet of the Arctic Ocean to the Atlantic. Because of drifting arctic ice, the northern part is rarely open to navigation.

Greenland Sea

 

a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, between the islands of Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Med-vezhii, and Spitsbergen. Area, 1,205,000 sq km; average depth, 1,444 m (maximum, 4,846 m); average volume of water, 1,740 cu km.

The bed of the Greenland Sea is a basin bounded on the east by the submarine Mohns and Knipovich ridges and on the south by the Greenland-Iceland Ridge. On the west the floor of the basin at first rises gradually and then, at the edge of the continental slope, rises rapidly in the direction of the relatively broad shelf of Greenland, which has many hills and troughs. The climate is arctic and severe. Northerly winds prevail year round. The average air temperature in winter is from —25° to -30° C; the average air temperature in summer is from 0° to 6° C. There is frequent cloud cover. The cold East Greenland Current runs along the western part of the sea, carrying with it floating ice all year long; a branch of the Gulf Stream, the warm Spitsbergen Current, flows along the eastern part. There is a vast cyclonal whorl in the central part of the sea. The average water temperature at the surface is a bit lower than - 1°C in February in the north, l°-2° C in the south and southeast, below 0° in August in the northwest, and up to 6° C in the south and east. The temperature at the floor is under -1° C. The salinity in the east is 33.0–34.5 parts per thousand (‰); in the west, 32.0% and less; and at the bottom of the ocean, 34.9‰. The tides are semidiurnal and reach a height of 4.4 m. The color of the water is predominantly green. There is whaling, (Greenland) seal hunting, and fishing. The ports of Longyear City and Barentsburg are located on the fjord of Isfjorden (Spitsbergen), and Akureyri in Iceland.

Greenland Sea

the S part of the Arctic Ocean, off the NE coast of Greenland
References in periodicals archive ?
In Svalbard ringed seals leave the fjords during summer to feed offshore in the Barents and Greenland Seas, returning the following spring (Lydersen, 1998).
The warming of the deep regions of the Greenland Sea is caused by an imbalance in ocean circulation.
For their study, they analysed temperature data from 1950 to 2010 in the abyssal Greenland Sea, which is an ocean area located just to the south of the Arctic Ocean.
Since 1993, oceanographers from the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), have carried out regularly expeditions to the Greenland Sea on board the research ice breaker Polarstern to investigate the changes in this region.
This conclusion is the only result From our study that is not in accordance with the old historical literature, which suggested that the bowhead whales overwintered in the southwest Greenland Sea near Iceland (Southwell, 1898).
The crustaceans that the whales feed on drift with the strong southward current along the ice edge from the northeast toward the southwest parts of the Greenland Sea over the summer; the large outflow of Arctic water in the Fram Strait area and concomitant ecological impacts are the likely reason for the atypical movement patterns of bowhead whales in this area.
In a project involving 11 nations, sevenships, eight aircraft, four helicopters and more than 200 people, oceanographers have journeyed to the Fram Strait region of the Greenland Sea to study the marginal ice zone--the boundary between open and ice-covered ocean.
Biologist Dr Paul Roberton returned in the "mocumentary", claiming to reveal never-before-seen footage of the assumed mythical creatures swimming in the Greenland Sea.
Both sexes return each year to breeding grounds in Newfoundland, the Greenland Sea, and the White Sea.
"We believe there has been a disturbance in the sinking of cold water in the Greenland Sea," says Dr Norman Davis, deputy leader of the Sea Ice Group at the Scott Polar Research Institute.
Lawrence, but to have shortened over a much larger area, including the Sea of Okhotsk, the Greenland Sea, the Barents Sea, and all the seas along the north coast of Russia.
"2,000 square leagues of ice with which the Greenland Seas between the latitudes of 74 and 80N have been hitherto covered, has in the last two years, entirely disappeared.