a system of planned production of greenfeed and its rational use in feeding animals during the entire pasturing period.
A greens conveyer is based on the consistent use of natural and cultivated pastures, perennial and annual grasses, melon fodder crops, and root and tuber crops in field and fodder-crop rotation and in outside field sections. Silage and hay are used as a component to insure completeness.
Three main types of greens conveyers are differentiated: natural, artifical, and mixed. The natural greens conveyer consists of natural pastures and the rowen of natural hayings. In the USSR this practice is organized mainly in the northern regions of the forest zone and in the southern regions where distant-pasturing animal husbandry is done with diverse seasonal pastures. The artificial growth conveyer includes long-established cultivated pastures and seeded perennial and annual grasses. It is found in regions where there are few or no natural forage grounds. The mixed greens conveyer includes seeded perennial and annual grasses, cultivated in natural pastures, and haying rowen.
A principal condition for the high effectiveness of a greens conveyer is a proper selection of crops. They must be of high yield, readily edible for animals, and capable of growing rapidly again after grazing or mowing. The greenfeed must be diverse in order to maximize its edibility and digestibility. For simultaneous use, the greens conveyer must consist of no less than two crops. The best and the cheapest greenfeed is yielded by cultivated pastures and by seeded perennial grasses. In regions with adequate moisture, two crops can be yielded in one plot, by planting secondary crops—posthaying, postharvest, and undersowing crops.
In watered regions of the forest zone, the leading constituent of a greens conveyer is long-established cultivated pasture, which can be used four or five times during a summer. In the other regions of the zone, the basis of the greens conveyer consists of improved hay fields and pastures and perennial grasses (red clover with timothy or meadow fescue). Annual legume-cereal mixtures are also planted (chiefly vetch with oats). In early spring, winter rye and early-growing perennial grasses (such as orchard grass and awnless bromegrass) are used in greenfeed. To replenish the green-feed lost from natural pastures, in the summer annual grasses are sown (vetch with oats and perennial ryegrass); and in autumn, kale is fed.
In the forest-steppe zone, the perennial grasses in pure and mixed plantings are important in the greens conveyer (alfalfa in a mixture with meadow fescue or awnless bromegrass, red clover with meadow fescue or timothy); of the perennial crops, vetch or field pea with oats, Sudan grass, or corn is planted. For early fodder, winter rye with winter vetch is planted. In autumn, kale and melon fodder crops are fed.
In the steppe zone, the main greens conveyer crops include annual millet-like cereals (Sudan-grass, foxtail millet, sorghum, and African millet). Beginning in the spring, wheat-grass with alfalfa, steppe pastures, and when necessary winter rye are used as greens conveyer crops; at the end of summer, root crops, melons, and rowen of perennial and annual grasses are used.
Natural and cultivated pastures and seeded perennial grasses are used for open grazing. Annual leguminous cereal mixtures are mowed and fed in feeders or are grazed. Proper organization of the green conveyer takes account of the animals’ requirement for the greenfeed based on calendar schedules and on the harvest yield of pastures of perennial and annual grasses and other fodder crops.
REFERENCESAlekseev, M. A. Zelenyi konveier dlia razlichnykh vidov zhivotnykh. Moscow, 1958.
Zelenyi konveier. Moscow, 1958. (A collection of articles.)
Ekonomika i organizatsiia proizvodstva kormov. Edited by M. A. Alekseev (et al.). Moscow, 1970.
M. A. ALEKSEEV