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the name of several figures in the Catholic Church.
Gregory I the Great. Born around 540, in Rome; died there Mar. 12, 604. Pope from 590.
Gregory I fought to strengthen the pope’s power and broadened the sphere of influence of the Roman Church: he sent missionaries to the Anglo-Saxons in Britain and the Goths in Spain, intervened in church affairs in Gaul and Africa, and proclaimed his exclusive right to supreme appellate jurisdiction over the entire Western church. Beginning with Gregory I, papal pretensions to world domination grew. He paid a great deal of attention to the organization of the economy of the papal territories (“the patrimony of Peter”) in order to increase their profitability. Gregory I left several theological works and valuable correspondence, and he reformed the singing of the liturgy. He was opposed to secular education and destroyed many ancient literary works.
Gregory VII (Hildebrand). Born between 1015 and 1020, in Rovaco, Tuscany; died May 25. 1085, in Salerno. Pope from 1073.
Gregory VII was active in the Cluny Reform, which was aimed at strengthening the Catholic Church. He was de facto head of the church under Pope Nicholas II (1059–64). Gregory VII’s reforms contributed to increasing the power and prestige of the papacy (the decree of 1059 on the pope’s election by the College of Cardinals alone, eliminating the direct participation of secular powers in the election, and the decrees against simony and a married clergy). Gregory VII laid out his ecclesiastical and political program in the Dictants papae (1075), which was permeated with the idea of papal theocracy. It expressed the pope’s pretensions to religious and political supremacy in the world, claiming that the Catholic Church is infallible and that the pope is higher than sovereigns and is the supreme judge, empowered to depose kings and emperors and to free vassals from vows of fidelity to a suzerain.
When he became pope, Gregory VII became involved in a cruel struggle with Emperor Henry IV over investiture (the right to make appointments to church positions). At first, Gregory VII was triumphant. Excommunicated by the pope in 1076, Henry IV had to come to the pope to do penance in 1077 at Canossa. But the conflict between the pope and the emperor soon flared up again. In 1084, Henry IV set up his own pope (antipope) Clement III (1084–1100) in opposition to Gregory VII, and with Clement’s blessing, the emperor seized Rome in 1084. Gregory VII called for aid from the southern Italian Normans, who plundered Rome, angering the population and forcing the pope to move to Norman territory in southern Italy. Gregory VII was canonized in 1606. He contributed to a temporary strengthening of the Catholic Church, but his plans to force the European states into submission to the papacy did not succeed.
REFERENCESFliche, A. La Réforme grégorienne, vols. 1–3. Paris. 1924–38.
Studi gregoriani, vols. 1–6. Rome, 1947–62.
Gregory IX (Ugolino di Segni). Born around 1145, in Anagni; died Aug. 22, 1241, in Rome. Pope from 1227.
In his struggle with Emperor Frederick II Hohenstaufen, Gregory IX continued the theocratic policy of Innocent III. He cruelly persecuted heretics, turned the Inquisition into a permanent organ of the Catholic Church (1232), putting it under the authority of the Dominican Order, and established inquisitional tribunals in several European countries, including Germany, Spain, and Portugal. A new collection of papal decretals was compiled under Gregory IX (1234).
Gregory XIII (Ugo Buoncompagni). Born Jan. 1, 1502. in Bologna; died Apr. 10, 1585, in Rome. Pope from 1572.
Gregory XIII was one of the inspirers of the Counter Reformation in the European states. He actively supported the French Catholics in their struggle with the Huguenots, and he contributed to the strengthening of the Jesuits. (For example, he transferred many educational establishments to their authority.) Gregory XIII tried to form a Franco-Spanish coalition and use the Irish uprising against Protestant England. He held celebrations in Rome in connection with the St. Bar-tholemew’s Day Massacre of Huguenots in France. Gregory XIII tried to spread Catholicism in the Russian state (the Jesuit Possevino’s Moscow mission in 1581). He reformed the calendar in 1582.
Gregory XVI (Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari). Born Sept. 18, 1765, in Belluno; died June 1, 1846, in Rome. Pope and secular ruler of the papal states from 1831 to 1846.
Gregory XVI’s rule was characterized by extreme obscurantism, conservatism in the area of economic policy, and open terror in internal policy. In 1832 in the encyclical Mirari vos, he sharply condemned liberalism in every form; he excommunicated F. R. Lamennais. By means of taxes he virtually robbed the population of the papal states. Uprisings in Bologna and other cities in the papal states in 1831 and popular unrest from 1843 to 1845 in Romagna were crushed by Austrian troops summoned by Gregory XVI.
REFERENCEDemarco, D. Il tramonto dello stato pontificio. Ilpapalo di Gregorio XVI. [Turin] 1949.
the name of two brothers. English topographers; explorers of Australia. Born in England, they grew up in Western Australia, where in 1841 they became coworkers in the topographical service.
Augustus Gregory. Born Aug. 1, 1819. in Farnsfield; died June 25, 1905, in Sydney. Augustus Gregory left Perth and went north in 1848. He discovered and explored the Murchi-son basin, and in 1855–56 he crossed Australia, traveling southeast from the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in the Timor Sea to the Pacific Ocean (24° S lat.). Gregory also explored the Victoria River. In 1858 he crossed Australia a second time, going southwest from Brisbane to Adelaide.
Francis Gregory. Born Oct. 19, 1821, in Farnsfield; died Oct. 24, 1888, in Toowoomba. Australia. Francis Gregory explored Western Australia. In 1858 south of the Gascoyne River he discovered Mount Augustus, which he named in honor of his brother, and in 1861 he discovered the De Grey, Fortescue, and Ashburton rivers and the Hamersley Range. Gregory drew up a schematic geologic map of Western Australia.