Henry IV knelt in front of an enthroned Pope Gregory VII
is about to kiss the pope's foot in the presence of Matilda.
In the context of the pope's struggle against Henry IV, Pope Gregory VII
spoke of the Church as "ecclesia non est ancilla, sed domina -- the Church is not a servant but a mistress" (Congar 1964: 105), while well intentioned in the context, we know the harm it goes on doing in the world.
Later that same year, Gregory VII
did indeed show himself capable of doing more than all by not only excommunicating Henry IV, but deposing him--a dual sentence that nearly cost the German king his throne.
AaPope Gregory VII
had excommunicated him after a conflict over the right to invest bishops throughout the German Reich.
In 1077, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV made penance and humble submission to Pope Gregory VII
in the Italian village of Canossa an act that became the symbol of contrition and humiliation.
Susana Zapke assembled a formidable team of scholars from a variety of disciplines to address a topic of extraordinary complexity: the transition from the Old Hispanic Rite (also known as "Visigothic" or "Mozarabic"), to the Franco-Roman Rite that began in the Spanish kingdoms during the late eleventh century under Pope Gregory VII
(1073-1083), who sought to unify the form and order of the Roman Catholic liturgy throughout Christendom.
The Papal Reform of the Eleventh Century: lives of popes Leo IX and pope Gregory VII
. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004.
Holland opens with the humiliation of the Emperor Henry IV before Pope Gregory VII
at Canossa in 1077 and ends with the bloodbath of the First Crusade in 1099.
8 In a famous 11th-century incident, Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV had to stand outside in the snow for three days before being granted absolution by Pope Gregory VII
- at which Italian castle?
The book begins with a historical tour from ancient China and Rome through the pro-market reforms of Pope Gregory VII
in the 11th century to the "intensive" economic growth launched by the ideas of Adam Smith and the policies of the British government in the 19th century.
Robinson takes up the narrative with Gregory VII
, whose ambitious papal programme offended not only the kings whom he claimed to have the right to depose, but also clergy who agreed to the principles of his reforms, but feared they would eventually weaken the Church and the clergy.
On This Day: 1074: Pope Gregory VII
ex-communicated all married priests.