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an arm of infantry in European armies from the 17th to the 20th century. The name “grenadier” was first applied to grenade-throwing soldiers, who appeared during the Thirty Years War (1618–48). By the end of the 17th century grenadier companies were formed in all European armies (first in France in the 1670’s). Grenadiers were designated for action at the head of assault columns and on flanks. At the beginning of the 18th century, detached grenadier units appeared. By the end of the 18th century grenadiers turned into select troops that did not differ from the rest of the infantry in armament or nature of operations. Horse grenadiers, who performed the same tasks as the grenadiers in infantry, were in limited use.
In Russia, grenadier companies are mentioned for the first time in 1694 in detached regiments. In 1704 they were introduced in all infantry and cavalry regiments. In 1708 the first grenadier regiments were formed; from four to 20 were in existence from 1708 to 1725 and from 1756 to 1917. In 1811 they were brought together into two divisions, and in 1814 the Grenadier Corps, consisting of three divisions, was formed. From one to six horse grenadier regiments existed from 1709 to 1725, from 1756 to 1763, and from 1790 to 1793. In 1831 the Dragoon Life Guards Regiment was renamed the Horse Grenadier Regiment. In the guards at the beginning of the 20th century the following grenadier units existed: one cavalry regiment, one infantry regiment, and one company (palace grenadiers); in the army there were 16 infantry regiments (brought together into four divisions), four artillery brigades, one artillery battalion, and one sapper battalion. The First and Second Grenadier divisions belonged to the Grenadier Corps. Grenadiers had several differences in uniform (a picture of a burning grenade on headgear, buttons, cartridges for separate ammunition, and buckles). They have been preserved in the British guards (one regiment); in the West Germany Army motorized riflemen are called Panzer grenadiers.