Franz Grillparzer

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Grillparzer, Franz

 

Born Jan. 15, 1791, in Vienna; died there Jan. 21, 1872. Austrian playwright.

Grillparzer studied law in Vienna and combined careers in literature and the civil service. In 1856 he retired and traveled around Europe. In 1826 he became acquainted with Goethe, and in 1836 in Paris he met L. Börne, who gave a very favorable evaluation of Grillparzer’s first important drama, the “tragedy of fate” The Ancestress (1817). He also became acquainted with Heine, and was a friend of Beethoven.

Grillparzer is the father of modern Austrian drama. His works were pervaded with protest against the reactionary feudal-bureaucratic regime of Chancellor Metternich and the egoistic spirit of emerging capitalist society. Thus, many of his plays were banned by the censor or were received with hostility by bourgeois audiences (for example, the comedy Thou Shalt Not Lie, 1838). However. Grillparzer’s world view was inconsistent: he saw no forces capable of countervailing the old Austria, which he despised, and in the Revolution of 1848–49 in Germany he took the side of the government.

In Grillparzer’s works the traditions of Enlightenment classicism are combined with romanticism and realism and the clarity and austerity of classical composition with romantic lyricism, symbolism, and the fervid fantasy and color of mass scenes. In the tragedy Sappho (1818) he depicted the tragic incompatibility of art and life. In Waves of the Sea and of Love (1831), Grillparzer upheld the freedom of natural craving against religious asceticism. In the plays King Ot-tocar: His Rise and Fall (1825) and The Dream, a Life (1834) he debunked lust for power and conquest and the cult of the strong man, for whom Napoleon served as prototype. Libussa (1844) conveys the humanist dream of a future society. Outstanding among Grillparzer’s short stories is “The Poor Musician” (1848), which is about the fortunes of an oppressed man of the people.

WORKS

Sämtliche Werke, vols. 1–42. Berlin, 1909–48.
In Russian translation:
P’esy. Introductory article and annotations by E. Etkind. Moscow-Leningrad, 1961.
[“Novelly.”] In Avstriiskaia novella XIX v. Moscow. 1959.

REFERENCES

Engels, F. F. Greberu, 9 dek. 1839–5 fevr. 1840. (Letter.) In K. Marx and F. Engels, Iz rannikh proizvedenii. Moscow, 1956. Page 336.
Mering, F. Literaturno-kriticheskie stat’i, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1934.
Azadovskii, K. “Gril’partser i ego zarubezhnye kritiki.” Voprosy literatury, 1968, no. 12.
Müller, J. F. Grillparzer. Stuttgart, 1963.
Naumann, W. F. Grillparzer: Das dichterische Werk, 2nd ed. Stuttgart [1967].
Wells, G. A. The Plays of Grillparzer. London [1969].

G. S. SLOBODKIN

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Grillparzer and Stifters contemplative travelogue descriptions of Trieste's calm Mediterranean waters, its towering ship masts, and its bustling crowds of polyglot merchants testify to the profound attraction that the Adriatic city exerted upon Austrian authors.
Lucia Moholy, diary entry, April 7, 1915, Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin; see Franz Grillparzer, The Jewess of Toledo, trans.
32) Aunque no se ocupa de la Sortija, el mejor estudio sobre la influencia de Lope en Grillparzer sigue siendo el de ARTURO FARINELLI, Lope de Vega en Alemania, trad.
Interestingly, his use of Medea does not refer to Euripides' Medea but to the 19th- century trilogy, Das Goldene Vlies, by Franz Grillparzer.
El nombre, que aparentemente aparecio por vez primera en un drama medieval de 1456 escrito por Thuring von Ringoltingen, se hizo famoso durante el siglo XIX con el titulo de un drama (La bella Melusine), escrito por el dramaturgo austriaco Franz Grillparzer en 1833 y convertido en opera por Conradin Kreutzer al ano siguiente.
occur: Kleist and Kafka, Grillparzer and Ferdinand von Saar, Schnitzler and Feuchtwanger, Max Frisch and even Lewis Carroll.
7) Son verdaderamente diversas las reelaboraciones del mito de Medea, entre las cuales podemos encontrar Medea de Arriola Haro; Medea de Corneille (1635); Medea de Richard Glover (1761); Medea de Franz Grillparzer (1924); Medea de Christa Wolf (1991); Medea de Fermin Cabal (1999), Alem do rio de Olavo Agostinho (1961); Os encantos de Medeia de Antonio Jose (1953); Gota d'agua de Paulo Pontes y Chico Buarte(1975), ademas de las producciones cinematograficas de Passolini y Lars von Tier y las adaptaciones para ninos y adolescentes como Los hijos de Medea de Suzanne Osten.
Leaving aside some secondary figures, four writers of lasting importance are commonly considered part of the Biedermeier tendency: Franz Grillparzer, Eduard Morike, Annette von Droste-Hulshoff, and, most importantly, Adalbert Stifter.
Algunas de estas obras son: Medea de Corneille (1635); Medea de Richard Glover (1761); Medea de Franz Grillparzer (1924), Medea de Ignacio Arriola Haro, Medea de Unamuno (1918); Medea de Christa Wolf (1991); Medea de Fermin Cabal (1999), Pa la do rio de Olavo Agostinho, Os encantos de Medeia de Antonio Jose (1753), Gota d'agua de Paulo Pontes y Chico Buarte (1975).
Then came the Buchner prize, the Manes Sperber prize, the Grillparzer prize, and more.
And his poet friend Grillparzer once recorded: "The censor has broken me down--One must emigrate to North America in order to give his ideas free expression.