Grimm's law


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Grimm's law,

principle of relationships in Indo-European languages, first formulated by Jakob Grimm in 1822 and a continuing subject of interest and investigation to 20th-century linguists. It shows that a process—the regular shifting of consonants in groups—took place once in the development of English and the other Low German languages and twice in German and the other High German languages. The first sound shift, affecting both English and German, was from the early phonetic positions documented in the ancient, or classical, Indo-European languages (Sanskrit, Greek, Latin) to those still evident in the Low German languages, including English; the second shift affected only the High German languages, e.g., standard German. Grimm's law shows that the classical voiceless stops (k,t,p) became voiceless aspirates (h,th,f ) in English and mediae (h,d,f ) in German, e.g., the initial sounds of Latin pater, English father, German Vater, and in the middle of Latin frater, English brother, German Bruder. It also shows that the classical unaspirated voiced stops (g,d,b) became voiceless stops (k,t,p) in English and voiceless aspirates (kh,ts,f) in German, e.g., the initial sounds of Latin decem, English ten, German zehn, and that the classical aspirated voiced stops (gh,dh,bh) became unaspirated voiced stops (g,d,b) in English and voiceless stops (k,t,p) in German, e.g., the initial sounds of Sanskrit dhar, English draw, German tragen.
References in periodicals archive ?
The strategy was effective: Prichard welcomed the discovery of facts which prove that these changes take place according to certain rules, and not by a merely accidental variation or corruption, (36); Donaldson thought that Grimm's laws of consonantal interchange were `the most fruitful discoveries ever made in the province of language' (131-2) and Neaves rejoiced that Grimm's Grammatik had `placed it beyond a doubt that a fixed principle prevails in comparative philology, where every thing was formerly thought to be arbitrary and accidental' (208).
To provide readers with an idea of what traditional comparative philology does - and, therefore, with an idea of what Mozeson would really have to do next if he wished to add substance to his claim that English derives from Hebrew - I shall summarize briefly Grimm's Law and Verner's Law, two of the most important philological laws explaining the history and development of English in the context of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Jacob, more the scholar, wrote a Deutsche Grammatik ( German Grammar, 1819 et seq) in which he formulated " Grimm's Law, " the first attempt to explain the consonantal differences between Greek and Latin words and their cognates in the Germanic languages.