Grinding Machine

Also found in: Wikipedia.

Grinding Machine


in metalworking, a machine tool designed to remove material from workpieces by means of an abrasive tool. The first modern grinding machine (a universal cylindrical grinder) was built in 1874 in the USA. Initially, grinding machines operated with disks, or grinding wheels, made from solid pieces of natural abrasive rocks; stronger wheels of pulverized natural abrasives later came into use. The invention in 1893 of a method of making artificial abrasives (carborundum) substantially broadened the application of grinding machines.

According to the classification adopted for metalcutting machine tools, grinding machines are divided into cylindrical and internal grinding types (including centerless grinders and those with planetary motion), specialized grinders, surface grinders, and other types that operate with an abrasive tool (gear grinders and thread grinders belong to the gear-cutting and thread-cutting group of machines). The characteristics of the tool used impose some added requirements on design and structural materials: resistance to vibration, wear resistance, and the rapid removal of abrasive dust. The principal motion of a grinding machine (seeMETALCUTTING MACHINE TOOL) is the rotation of the abrasive tool at a velocity that is generally considerably higher than the feed rate and other motions.

Cylindrical grinding machines are the most common type. In such machines the workpiece is carried on centers or in a chuck (Figure 1,a) and rotated in a direction opposite to that of the grinding wheel; together with the table of the machine, the work-piece executes reciprocating motion. At the completion of every single (or double) traverse of the table, the grinding wheel is shifted transversely by an amount equal to the cutting depth (seeMACHINING). External cylindrical and conical surfaces and the ends of workpieces are usually ground on cylindrical grinding machines. Infeed, or plunge, grinding is used to grind external cylindrical, conical, and irregularly shaped surfaces with a wide wheel (wider than the dimension of the workpiece); in this case there is no longitudinal feed.

Figure 1. Diagrams of the operation of grinding machines: (a) cylindrical grinder, (b) internal grinder, (c) internal grinder with planetary motion, (d) centerless grinder, (e) centerless internal grinder, (f) surface grinder using the periphery of the wheel, (g) surface grinder using the end of the wheel; (1) grinding wheel, (2) clamp, (3) workpiece, (4) chuck, (5) regulating wheel, (6) workrest blade

Internal grinding machines are designed to grind internal surfaces of rotation. In the most common types the workpiece is rotated around the axis of the hole being ground while the grinding wheel rotates around its own axis (Figure l,b); the wheel is moved both longitudinally and transversely. Internal grinding machines with planetary motion are used to machine holes in workpieces that are difficult to rotate. In such machines the grinding wheel simultaneously rotates around its own axis and around the axis of the hole being machined (Figure 1,c).

Centerless grinding machines are designed to grind external and internal cylindrical surfaces. When external surfaces are to be ground, the workpiece (or a series of workpieces placed end to end) is positioned between two wheels, one of which is for machining and the other for regulating (Figure l,d), and is pressed against a workrest blade. As a result of the tilt of the regulating wheel, the frictional forces not only cause the workpiece to rotate but also to feed through. The regulating wheel is also fed transversely. When internal surfaces are to be ground, such as ball bearing races, the workpieces are supported between two pressure rolls and a regulating wheel (Figure l,e) that rotates the workpiece. The grinding wheel is moved along and across the axis of the hole, if necessary, or only radially (for infeed grinding). Centerless grinding machines are less versatile than cylindrical grinders and internal grinding machines, but they are simpler in design.

Surface grinding machines are designed to machine the plane surfaces of workpieces with the periphery or the end of a grinding wheel. In machines that use the periphery of the wheel (Figure l,f), the table and the workpiece mounted on it execute a reciprocating or rotary motion; the rotating grinding wheel is moved crosswise for each traverse or rotation of the table, and it is also shifted by an amount equal to the depth of the cut. In surface grinding machines that machine with the end of the wheel (Figure l,g), unlike machines that use the wheel periphery, there is no transverse feed, because the diameter of the wheel is greater than the transverse dimension of the workpiece (infeed grinding).

Specialized grinding machines are usually designed to machine parts of some given shape, for example, crankshaft journals, parts of dies, templates, and splined parts. The workpieces are usually machined to a template (the forming method); the generating method is less often used.

The general group of grinding machines also includes lapping, polishing, microfinishing, tool-grinding, spline-grinding, honing, and other machines that use an abrasive tool.


Metallorezhushchie slanki. Moscow, 1973.
Maslov, E. N. Teoriia shlifovaniia materialov. Moscow, 1974.


References in classic literature ?
The world seems a vast horrible grinding machine, into which what is fresh and bright and pure is pushed at one end, to come out old and crabbed and wrinkled at the other.
Tenders are invited for Design supply erection and comissioning of conventionel external cylindrical grinding machine
but with their equipment, as well, which leads us to the new Management Suite from ANCA, a grinding machine manufacturer.
MASTER ABRASIVES says it has developed its product and service packages over nearly 50 years of providing solutions for industry and with its abrasives and tool services offering continuing to adapt to industry needs, it is now able to offer a complete solution for precision grinding applications with the addition of a range of precision grinding machine tools to the UK which are accurate, precise and competitively priced, being manufactured by Micromatic Grinding Technologies in India.
A joint venture has been awarded the Php160-million contract to supply brand-new rail grinding machine for the Metro Rail Transit 3 (MRT-3), the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) revealed on Wednesday.
The MHI exhibit will feature a gear grinding machine and a double-column 5-face milling machine which is manufactured at the company's local machine tool plant in Changshu, Jiangsu Province.
The crushing grinding machine is a perfect example of incremental innovation.
Five tenders requesting offers from eligible bidders to supply (a) one jig boring machine, (b) one precision jig grinding machine, (c) one center less (floating) grinding machine, (d) a grinding machine for piston rings, also (e) a CNC deep hole drilling machine.
The project intends to introduce small scale grinding machine, on cost share, to the communities.
Rosink, a German-based supplier of coilers and service machines for cot maintenance and carding flat workshops, will present at Shanghaitex 2011 its simple manual grinding machine Robby and its fully automatic cot grinding centre called SZ1 A Twin / HA.
During the CastExpo, Maus will display Sam 300, the smallest grinding machine in the range, suitable for grinding parts weighing up to 20 kg.
AN old grinding machine has begun a new life at an industrial museum.