Gross, David Jonathan

Gross, David Jonathan,

1941–, American particle physicist, b. Washington, D.C., Ph.D. Univ. of California, Berkeley, 1966. Gross was a professor at Princeton from 1969 to 1997, when he joined the faculty at the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara. He was a co-recipient, with David PolitzerPolitzer, Hugh David,
1949–, American physicist, b. Mineola, N.Y., Ph.D. Harvard, 1974. Politzer has been a professor at the California Institute of Technology since 1977.
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 and Frank WilczekWilczek, Frank Anthony,
1951–, American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Princeton, 1974. Wilczek was a professor at Princeton (1974–80, 1989–2000) and at the Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (1980–88).
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, of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics for their development in 1973 of a mathematical framework that led to the theory of quantum chromodynamicsquantum chromodynamics
(QCD), quantum field theory that describes the properties of the strong interactions between quarks and between protons and neutrons in the framework of quantum theory.
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 (QCD), which explained how the nucleus of the atom works. The theory was an important contribution to the standard model of particle physics, which describes all physics in terms of four forces or interactions—their findings concerned strong interactionsstrong interactions,
actions between elementary particles mediated, or carried, by gluons. They are responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons in the nucleus and interactions between quarks.
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