Ground Beetles


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Ground Beetles

 

(Carabidae), a family of beetles. Ground beetles vary in size (2–8 cm). Many have anal glands that secrete a caustic fluid. The elytra usually cover the entire abdomen; sometimes they grow together, in which case the wings are absent or underdeveloped. The larvae are elongated, mobile, and often black and shiny; most are predaceous and some are herbivorous. Pupation takes place in soil.

Ground beetles eat mostly mollusks, insect larvae, and sometimes earthworms. Some species are herbivorous and are capable of injuring grains (grain and millet beetles and other species of the genera Zabrus, Amara, and Harpalus). They are usually active at night, hiding during the day under stones or fallen leaves. There are approximately 20,000 species, widely distributed all over the world but mainly in the temperate zone and most of all in Europe and Asia. There are more than 2,300 species in the USSR. Some species of the genera Carabus and Calosoma, particularly the European ground beetle, are very useful in forestry and orchard growing because they destroy gypsy moth caterpillars, cutworms, and slugs.

REFERENCES

Kryzhanovskii, O. L. Zhuki-zhuzhelitsy roda Carabus Srednei Azii. Moscow-Leningrad, 1953.
Zhizn’ zhivotnykh, vol. 3. Moscow, 1969.

M. E. TER-MINASIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Niemela, "Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators," Biodiversity and Conservation, vol.
According to Lorenz (2005) the subfamily Harpalinae is the largest group of ground beetles with 19,000 species.
Provisional Atlas of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Britain.
FORSYTHE, T.G., 1982.--Feeding mechanisms of certain ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).
For the convince in work and avoiding taxonomic constraints, the arthropods were categorized into morphologically similar groups (morpho- groups) and closely related species or morpho-species were clustered in their respective morpho-group i.e., ants, spiders, ladybird beetles, ground beetles (predators), sow bugs, cockroaches (scavengers), hairy caterpillars and field crickets (phytophagous).
Pitfall traps were used to collect ground beetles. Three plots, each consisting of nine traps, were placed in each of the six habitats, for a total of 18 plots and 162 pitfall traps.
One of the smallest ever cave-dwelling ground beetles (Carabidae), has recently been discovered in two caves in the Rhodopi Mountains, Bulgaria, and described under the name Paralovricia beroni.
In the Brookings laboratory, Lundgren and colleagues offered hungry predators (from formidable ground beetles to wolf spiders to ants) a smorgasbord of rootworm larvae and pupae.
And over at Liverpool's World Museum, visitors can get up close to birds of prey, tarantulas, scorpions and Indian Ground Beetles which squirt skin-corroding acid.
In a recent paper, Felix (2009) illustrated and recorded the occurrence of 70 species of ground beetles (family Carabidae) in the United Arab Emirates, UAE.
Vine weevils and their grubs are eaten by birds, frogs, toads, shrews, hedgehogs and predatory ground beetles. For the larvae, use a biological control in August or early September - both on beds and borders, and plants in pots and containers.
The good guys are hoverflies (often mistaken for wasps) and their larvae (sometimes mistaken for caterpillars), ladybirds, lacewings, ground beetles and anthocorids, which are all a huge help, eating up masses of common pests.