The condition affects both components of the hip joint (ball and socket) and when the ball of the hip joint slips on the growth plate
, it eventually leads to deformity of the ball and damage to the socket of the hip joint which results in premature arthritis in the joint in early adulthood.
The growth of children's bones depends on growth plates
(physes) situated close to the end of all long bones in the body.
This is due to the use of 2D monolayer culture in an attempt to measure any process in the chondrocyte of children to mimick the chondrocyte in the growth plate
. Unlike in the adult where providing healthy donor for cartilage is possible, in the children population, deriving chondrocyte from cartilage or growth plate
would considered unethical as this might lead to growth arrest.
In a growing long bone, the cells of growth plate
are responsible for the longitudinal growth of bone21.
Quantitative histomorphometric analysis of the human growth plate
from birth to adolescence.
In TD, the growth plate
bone fails to resorb and accumulates in the metaphyseal region causing lameness (Tian et al., 2013; Nabi et al., 2016a).
maturity was assessed on anterior-posterior knee radiographs.
Plain radiography showed that the angle between the proximal growth plate
and the distal articular surface of the proximal phalanx was 29[degrees] on the affected side compared with 5.5[degrees] on the contralateral noninjured side (Figure 3).
The vertebra of children are unique in that they have growth centers of the neurocentral synchondrosis and both superior and inferior aspects of the vertebral body which can result in growth plate
fractures and injuries from trauma, similar to growth plates
of long bones.
As for the contraindications for the use of the US, in a review conducted by Batavia (2004), it was determined that the application of US in areas close to the growth plate
(PC) is the second most frequently reported contraindication in the specialized literature (Batavia).
The most commonly diagnosed injuries include ligament sprains, muscle strains, overuse injuries and growth plate
In addition to well-established effects on growth plate
cartilage, GH exerts anabolic effects on bone and stimulates new bone formation, which results in greater bone mass and improved skeletal structure [11,12].