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(gwäng shü), 1871–1908, emperor of China (1875–1908). Although he was not in the direct line of succession, he was appointed to the throne by his aunt, the dowager empress and regent, Tz'u HsiTz'u Hsi,
 Tsu Hsi,
 Tse Hsi,
or Cixi
, 1834–1908, dowager empress of China (1861–1908) and regent (1861–73, 1874–89, 1898–1908).
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. He began his rule in 1889. In 1898, during the "hundred days of reform," he rebelled against her domination and issued many decrees modernizing the political and social structure of China. His aunt thereupon resumed the regency and kept him imprisoned for the remainder of his life while she ruled China in a conservative manner.
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Late in 1876, regents of the four-year-old Guangxu emperor (r.
And Kang's memorials to the reform-minded Guangxu emperor in April-June 1895 incorporated virtually all of Richard's recommendations in Present Needs as well as suggestions advanced by Zheng Guanying and Young J.
During the so-called Hundred Days of Reform (June 12--September 20, 1898), the Guangxu emperor, who himself had studied Richard's writings, issued edicts mandating the implementation of new industrial and agricultural techniques, railways and mines, a national university to teach Western subjects, conversion of temples into Western-style schools, and public education through newspapers.

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