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(gwäränē`), indigenous group living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the TupinambáTupinambá,
a people living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the Guaraní of Paraguay and adjacent portions of Brazil and Argentina.
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 on the Atlantic coast. The Guaraní language is currently spoken by some 6 million people in Paraguay (where it is widely spoken and an official language) and in adjacent portions of Argentina, Brazil, and Bolivia. At the time of the Spanish conquest (16th cent.), the Guaraní lived in settlements consisting of four to eight large communal dwellings, each of which accommodated 100 people or more. Chiefs resided patrilocally, but other men lived in their wives' houses and performed bride-service. They depended primarily on intensive agriculture supplemented by fishing, hunting, and gathering; the staple crops were corn and manioc. Men cleared fields that women tilled. Although their material culture was not advanced, Guaraní songs, dances, and myths constituted a rich body of folklore. Their religion was based on an impressive and elaborate mythology. The shaman was believed to possess supernatural powers that allowed him to ward off evil and cure sickness. The Guaraní survived initial contact with rapacious conquistadors because Paraguay lay apart from the main routes of Spanish trade and influence. Early Jesuit missionaries established the historically controversial system of reductionsreductions,
Span. reducciones, settlements of indigenous peoples in colonial Latin America, founded (beginning in 1609) to utilize efficiently native labor and to teach the natives the ways of Spanish life.
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, which (for a short time) protected them from the slave-trade, and hispanicized them. Surviving Guaraní continue to practice communal agriculture in some rural areas and Guaraní culture has had a strong influence on present-day Paraguayan musical folklore.



a South American Indian language (spoken by the Caingua. Guayaqui, Apapocuva, Ivapare, Guayana, Chane, Chiriguano, and other tribes), which belongs to the Tupi-Guarani family of languages. Before the colonization of South America (16th century), it was spoken over the territory of what is now Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. The Guarani language forms the basis of the so-called common language (lingua geral), that to this day serves as a means of intertribal communication among the Indians of South America. It has been subjected to the influence of the Spanish and Portuguese languages since the 16th century. In Paraguay missionaries continued to use Guarani and compiled several dictionaries and grammars based on the Roman alphabet, thus contributing to the survival of the language. In present-day Paraguay, Spanish js the official state language, although Guarani is spoken by approximately 80 percent of the population, and newspapers and books are published in the language.


Cornelsen. E. Lingua Guarani. Rio de Janeiro. 1937.
Ayrosa. P. “Apontamentos para a bibliografia da lingua Tupi-Guarani.” Universidade de Säo Paulo, bulletin no. 4. 1943.
Jover Peralta, A., and T. Osuna. Diccionario guaraní-español. Buenos Aires [1951].
References in periodicals archive ?
El grado de expansion de la forma innovadora, sin embargo, no es el mismo en estas dos variantes, como ya se podia anticipar en vista del hecho de que el sistema de validacion de la informacion, si bien esta codificado tanto en quechua como en guarani, en el primer caso es de uso obligatorio, mientras que en guarani es "potestativo y deslizante" (p.
Nesses contextos, a infancia e os processos de ensino e aprendizagem nao sao os mesmos daqueles que ocorriam nas formas de organizacao antigas, como, por exemplo, nos Tekoha Guarani, nas Tapuy Xeta e nos Emas Kaingang tradicionais.
Mesmo as intervencoes de pequeno porte --como a identificacao etnica, em agosto de 1994, de uma crianca guarani cuja familia vivia na periferia da cidade de Guaira no Parana --tiveram uma importancia enorme.
1], the index of salt tolerance of the cultivar LA Guarani decreased to 63.
The harvest period in the 2012/2013 cycle was higher for tupy Guarani and Xavante cultivars, and the peak of this phase coincided for these three cultivars, with no production staggering.
In 2003, ISARM decided to include the Guarani Aquifer case in its portfolio due to the execution of the Guarani Aquifer System Project shown in table 2.
Guarani has seven mills in the top sugar producing state of Sao Paulo.
O presente estudo caracteriza-se como descritivo transversal e a coleta de dados foi realizada na cidade de Maringa, Parana, com 178 indigenas adultos, pertencentes a etnia Kaingang (n = 117) e Guarani (n = 61), que participaram ou presenciaram o II Torneio de Futebol Indigena promovido pelo GEL/UEM (Grupo de Estudos do Lazer da Universidade Estadual de Maringa).
The Guarani, the nation's third-largest indigenous group, believe the drilling only will make them poorer.
During and after the war, the Guarani language was bolstered to the extent that Paraguay is the only country in the Western Hemisphere where a majority of the population speaks one indigenous language, Guarani, which is enshrined in the Constitution, giving it official equality with the language of European colonization, Spanish.
From the onset of anthesis, two anthers from each flower (from a minimum of three flowers) were collected and analyzed at pre-set time intervals (Esmeralda: 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours; Estrela: 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours; Guarani das Missoes: 12, 24 and 36 hours).
Lo cual--y esto es lo caracteristico del Paraguay--es un fenomeno de indole nacional, no implica una delimitacion etnica o regional--como si sucede con otras lenguas originarias supervivientes en America--e incluso algunos investigadores consideran el guarani, en tanto lengua de la cotidianidad, la intimidad y los afectos, como uno de los rasgos sobre los que se construyo la nacionalidad paraguaya (1).