Guaraní

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Guaraní

(gwäränē`), indigenous group living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the TupinambáTupinambá,
a people living in the eastern lowland area of South America, related to the Tupí of the Rio São Francisco and the Guaraní of Paraguay and adjacent portions of Brazil and Argentina.
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 on the Atlantic coast. The Guaraní language is currently spoken by some 6 million people in Paraguay (where it is widely spoken and an official language) and in adjacent portions of Argentina, Brazil, and Bolivia. At the time of the Spanish conquest (16th cent.), the Guaraní lived in settlements consisting of four to eight large communal dwellings, each of which accommodated 100 people or more. Chiefs resided patrilocally, but other men lived in their wives' houses and performed bride-service. They depended primarily on intensive agriculture supplemented by fishing, hunting, and gathering; the staple crops were corn and manioc. Men cleared fields that women tilled. Although their material culture was not advanced, Guaraní songs, dances, and myths constituted a rich body of folklore. Their religion was based on an impressive and elaborate mythology. The shaman was believed to possess supernatural powers that allowed him to ward off evil and cure sickness. The Guaraní survived initial contact with rapacious conquistadors because Paraguay lay apart from the main routes of Spanish trade and influence. Early Jesuit missionaries established the historically controversial system of reductionsreductions,
Span. reducciones, settlements of indigenous peoples in colonial Latin America, founded (beginning in 1609) to utilize efficiently native labor and to teach the natives the ways of Spanish life.
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, which (for a short time) protected them from the slave-trade, and hispanicized them. Surviving Guaraní continue to practice communal agriculture in some rural areas and Guaraní culture has had a strong influence on present-day Paraguayan musical folklore.

Guarani

 

a South American Indian language (spoken by the Caingua. Guayaqui, Apapocuva, Ivapare, Guayana, Chane, Chiriguano, and other tribes), which belongs to the Tupi-Guarani family of languages. Before the colonization of South America (16th century), it was spoken over the territory of what is now Brazil, Paraguay, and northern Argentina. The Guarani language forms the basis of the so-called common language (lingua geral), that to this day serves as a means of intertribal communication among the Indians of South America. It has been subjected to the influence of the Spanish and Portuguese languages since the 16th century. In Paraguay missionaries continued to use Guarani and compiled several dictionaries and grammars based on the Roman alphabet, thus contributing to the survival of the language. In present-day Paraguay, Spanish js the official state language, although Guarani is spoken by approximately 80 percent of the population, and newspapers and books are published in the language.

REFERENCES

Cornelsen. E. Lingua Guarani. Rio de Janeiro. 1937.
Ayrosa. P. “Apontamentos para a bibliografia da lingua Tupi-Guarani.” Universidade de Säo Paulo, bulletin no. 4. 1943.
Jover Peralta, A., and T. Osuna. Diccionario guaraní-español. Buenos Aires [1951].
References in periodicals archive ?
The seeds for this were, perhaps involuntarily, sown thirteen years previously by the author of the innovative novel on which the opera Il Guarany was based, Jose Martiniano de Alencar.
As a late manifestation of grand opera conventions and particularly in its 'exotic' setting Gomes' Il Guarany is sandwiched between two other late grand operas: Meyerbeer's valedictory L'Africaine first performed, posthumously, on 28 April 1865 in Paris, and Verdi's Aida, famously commissioned by the Khedive of Egypt as part of the celebrations for the opening of the Suez Canal and first performed on 24 December 1871 in the new Cairo Opera House.
2012) reported that trifluralin application significantly increased the yield of the AL Guarany 2002 castor bean cultivar, when sowing seeds 5.
Utilizaram-se as cultivares de mamona 'AL Guarany 2002', de porte medio, frutos indeiscentes e ciclo de aproximadamente 180 dias ate a colheita de cachos terciarios, e o hibrido 'Lyra', de porte baixo, frutos indeiscentes e ciclo precoce (SAVY FILHO, 2005).
Brazil also boasted an impressive selection of film companies such as Independencia Omnia Film, Campos Film, Guarany Film, Santa Therezinha Film, Sul America Film and Rex Film.
Fralib, Fredsted, Friele, Friesland Coberco, Friesland-Coberco, Friggs, Gala, Gallego Montecelio, Gerkens, Gilde Fund, Giorgiadis, Globekirk, Grupo Sumol, GSK, Guarany, Haco, Haecky, Hag, Hain Celestial, Hankow Batchelor, Hartog, Heinz, Heusler u.
Foram utilizados cinco lotes de sementes de mamoneira, cultivar 'AL Guarany 2002', de diversas procedencias, homogeneizados e amostrados em 2.
Al Guarany 2002' e 'IAC 226' tem ciclo de 180 dias, porte medio e fruto indeiscente; 'IAC 80' tem ciclo de 240 dias, porte alto e frutos semideiscentes, e 'BRS 188 Paraguacu' tem porte medio/alto e frutos semideiscentes.
Gaspare Nello Vetro published a study of Gomes and Il Guarany in 1996 and has also edited, with commentary, the composer's collected letters (predominantly in Italian).
A cultivar utilizada foi "AL Guarany 2002", semeada na primeira quinzena do mes de novembro de 2006, em uma area de 0,3ha, aproximadamente.
The main family of peoples occupying the territory were the Tupys and Guaranys, but there were also the Goitacazes, Tremembis and Aimoris.