Guiana


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Guiana

(gēăn`ə, –än`–), region, NE South America. It faces the Atlantic Ocean on the north and east and is enclosed on the west and south within a vast semicircle formed by the linked river systems of the Orinoco, the Río Negro, and the lower Amazon. It includes SE Venezuela, part of N Brazil, French GuianaFrench Guiana
, Fr. La Guyane française, officially Department of Guiana, French overseas department (2005 est. pop. 195,000), 35,135 sq mi (91,000 sq km), NE South America, on the Atlantic Ocean.
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, SurinameSuriname
, officially Republic of Suriname, republic (2005 est. pop. 438,000), 63,037 sq mi (163,266 sq km), NE South America, on the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Guiana region, it is separated from Brazil on the south by the Tumuc-Humac Mts.
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 (formerly Dutch Guiana), and GuyanaGuyana
, officially Co-operative Republic of Guyana, republic (2005 est. pop. 765,000), 83,000 sq mi (214,969 sq km), NE South America. It is bordered on the N by the Atlantic Ocean, on the E by Suriname, on the S and W by Brazil, and on the W by Venezuela.
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 (formerly British Guiana). The region consists of a cultivated coastal plain, where most of the population lives, and a forested, hilly interior, the Guiana HighlandsGuiana Highlands,
mountainous tableland, c.1,200 mi (1,930 km) long and from 200 to 600 mi (322–966 km) wide, N South America, bounded by the Orinoco and Amazon river basins, and by the coastal lowlands of the Guianas.
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. Descending from plateaus as high waterfalls, such as Kaieteur Falls (Guyana) and Angel FallsAngel Falls,
waterfall, Sp. Salto Ángel, 3,212 ft (979 m) high, SE Venezuela, in the Guiana Highlands. Springing from Auyán-Tepuí Mesa, it is the highest uninterrupted waterfall in the world.
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 (Venezuela), the rivers, notably the Caroní, Essequibo, Courantyne (Corantijn or Corentyne), Maroni, and Oiapoque, flow through low mountains, savannas, and tropical rain forests into coastal swamps and lagoons. Most of the streams are navigable only for short distances, a feature that has hindered development. The coastal plain contains rich alluvial deposits carried by ocean currents from the Amazon. The Dutch and subsequently the English reclaimed much of the tidal lands for planting sugarcane and rice, but the acreage is tiny in comparison to Guiana as a whole. Most of coastal Guiana has a monotonously hot, humid climate with heavy rainfall. The interior is inhabited by indigenous peoples and descendants of freed slaves (maroonsmaroon,
term for a fugitive slave in the 17th and 18th cent. in the West Indies and Guiana, or for a descendant of such slaves. They were called marron by the French and cimarrón by the Spanish.
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).

The Guiana coast was discovered (1498) by Columbus, who did not land there. The legend of El Dorado drew Sir Walter Raleigh to the region in 1595. The Spanish had also come in search of easy wealth, but, finding none, they left the coast open to exploitation by the Dutch, English, and French. The Dutch were the first to settle, but ownership of territory changed hands many times. After the emancipation of the slaves in the 19th cent., labor shortage proved a major problem on the European-owned plantations. It was partially offset by importing South Asians and Indonesians.

Bibliography

See J. Gimlette, Wild Coast (2011).

Guiana

, The Guianas
a region of NE South America, including Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana, and the Guiana Highlands (largely in SE Venezuela and partly in N Brazil). Area: about 1 787 000 sq. km (690 000 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
The spacecraft, built by Orbital ATK was packed and shipped at their Satellite Manufacturing Facility in Dulles, Virginia, United States and flown to French Guiana, where it was unloaded and will be taken to the Arianespace launch facilities in Kourou.
All 5 patients with acute infection were men (Table) who did not have a history of travel outside French Guiana.
The first two chapters are devoted to the single entity of Guiana prior to the colonial demarcations of the nineteenth century.
Euromonitor International's Travel in French Guiana report offers a comprehensive guide to the size and shape of the market at a national level.
The FCube facility will help optimize the operation of the three launch systems deployed by Arianespace at the Guiana Space Center -- Ariane 5, Soyuz and Vega.
Ha uma questao geopolitica relevante por tras da construcao das usinas hidreletricas no Rio Mazaruni, que impacta diretamente as relacoes entre Brasil, Guiana e Venezuela.
In the second half of the book, she looks more closely at the social and political dynamics of Guiana, tracing the formal establishment of a French penal colony there after 1854 and its subsequent expansion.
Arianespace will deliver the O3b satellites into a circular orbit at an altitude of 8062 km with the latest Soyuz launch from the Guiana Space Center in French Guiana, an orbit that is four times closer to the earth than traditional geostationary satellites, providing O3b customers with substantial performance benefits due to lower latency or delay.
Palmer initially blames the British and Americans for all of British Guiana's problems, but midway through the book, he chastises both Jagan and Burnham for not doing enough to create a safe environment in British Guiana during the turbulent 1950s and early 1960s.
The report presents detailed historic and forecast data on the Oils and Fats consumption trends in French Guiana, offering consumption volume and value at market and category level.
The only surviving 1856 One Cent Magenta from British Guiana was put on show at Sotheby's in London and it will be auctioned in New York on June 17.
First, French gold producer Auplata SA has received required authorizations to construct and operate a centralized cyanide plant to treat gold gravity concentrates from its various mines and mining sites in French Guiana.