Guido d'Arezzo

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Guido d'Arezzo

(gwē`dō därĕt`tsō) or

Guido Aretinus

(ârətī`nəs), c.990–1050, Italian Benedictine monk, known for his contributions to musical notation and theory. His theoretical work Micrologus (c.1025) is one of the principal sources of our knowledge of organumorganum
, in music, compositional technique, developed in Europe during the 10th cent., in which each note of Gregorian chant melody was doubled by another note. In the earliest examples, called parallel organum, the doubling interval was constant, usually the lower fourth or
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, an early form of polyphony. His work in musical notationmusical notation,
symbols used to make a written record of musical sounds.

Two different systems of letters were used to write down the instrumental and the vocal music of ancient Greece. In his five textbooks on music theory Boethius (c.A.D. 470–A.D.
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 included the addition of two lines (one red, one yellow) to the two already serving as a staff and the use of both the lines and the spaces. Also important was his system of solmization (sometimes called, after him, Aretinian syllables), whereby the syllables ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la are used as names for the six tones, C to A, known as the hexachord. As the octave replaced the hexachord, an additional syllable, si or ti, was added, and eventually ut was replaced by the more singable do. Other revisions of Guido's system that have been suggested from time to time have not survived.
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This use of the French word quarre for the more common quadratum is an English convention also used in two manuscripts of the Metrologus, (20) a thirteenth-century treatise and commentary on Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus, the definitive medieval treatment of music theory.
30, the only extant complete copies of the treatise are found in England and that the text refers to Guido of Arezzo as "Guido de Santa Mauro;" Jos.
They also regard Guido of Arezzo, John (not) of Afflighem, and others as representing stages in a development, and here perhaps certain accounts are too inclined to take our limited evidence at face value.
359, that contains the Dialogus de musica and Guido of Arezzo's Epistola.
The Renaissance Reform of Medieval Music Theory: Guido of Arezzo between Myth and History.
They represent the first description of the line diagram known as the staff, and are taken from Guido of Arezzo's Prologus in anliphonarium (1030).
Pitches occurring within these hexachords were known as "musica recta," while pitches outside the system were identified as "musica ficta." The system was taught by means of hexachordal solmization, traditionally traced back to Guido of Arezzo. The solmization syllables--ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la--derive from the first stanza of the plainchant hymn connected with the feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist: "Ut queant laxis resonare fibris, Mira gestorum famuli tuorum, Solve polluti labii reatum, Sancte Joannes" (Liber Usualis, p.
Writing around 1100 and following Guido of Arezzo, Johannes says that the modes are improperly called tones, but he goes on to argue astutely in favor of the term tonus on the basis of affinities between music and grammar.
By the early twelfth century, the outlines of European modal theory were relatively stabilized in widely circulated texts such as Guido of Arezzo's Micrologus.
Guido of Arezzo, a century later, added both these whole tones to make the hexachord (C-D-E-F-G-a), the basic tonal construct that was used in European music until replaced by the major scale (CD-E-F-G-a + b), sometime in the seventeenth century.