Guienne


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Related to Guienne: Guyenne

Guienne,

Fr. Guyenne (both: gēĕn`, gwē–), region of SW France. The name referred to different territories at different times. Guienne as it existed from the time of Henry IV (late 16th–early 17th cent.) to the French Revolution covered the present departments of Gironde, Dordogne, Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, and Aveyron and most of Tarn-et-Garonne. It thus had no geographic unity and included part of the Aquitaine basin and part of the Massif CentralMassif Central
[Fr.,=central highlands], great mountainous plateau, c.33,000 sq mi (85,470 sq km), S central France, covering almost a sixth of the surface of the country.
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. BordeauxBordeaux
, city (1990 pop. 213,274), capital of Gironde dept., SW France, on the Garonne River. Bordeaux is a major economic and cultural center, and a busy port accessible to oceangoing ships from the Atlantic through the Gironde River.
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 is the historical capital, the chief port, and the center of the wine industry. Guienne was synonymous with AquitaineAquitaine
, Lat. Aquitania, former duchy and kingdom in SW France. Julius Caesar conquered the Aquitani, an Iberian people of SW Gaul, in 56 B.C. The province that he created occupied the territory between the Garonne River and the Pyrenees; under Roman rule it was
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 until the Hundred Years War (1337–1453). It passed to England through the marriage (1152) of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II. In 1453, Guienne was reconquered by France. To its main components—Bordelais, PérigordPérigord
, region of SW France, now included in Dordogne and parts of Lot-et-Garonne depts. Périgueux (the capital) and Bergerac are the chief cities. The region consists of low, arid limestone plateaus, the deep and fertile valleys of the Lot and Dordogne rivers,
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, and Agenois (see AgenAgen
, town (1990 pop. 32,223), capital of Lot-et-Garonne dept., SW France, on the Garonne River, in Guienne. It is an agricultural marketplace in the center of a fruit-growing region and an industrial center where food products, clothing, agricultural machinery, bicycles,
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)—two former dependencies of Toulouse were added, QuercyQuercy
, region and former county, SW France, now divided between Lot and Tarn-et-Garonne depts. Cahors is the chief city. It consists of arid limestone plateaus (causses), cut by fertile valleys of the Lot, Dordogne, and Aveyron rivers.
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 and RouergueRouergue
, region of S France, in the S Massif Central, coextensive with the present Aveyron dept. Rodez, the historic capital, and Millau are the chief towns. One of the most mountainous areas of France, it is traversed by the Aveyron, Tarn, and other rivers, which form many
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. From the 17th cent. to 1792 it formed part of the vast province of Guienne and Gascony under the jurisdiction of the parlementparlement
, in French history, the chief judicial body under the ancien régime. The parlement consisted of a number of separate chambers: the central pleading chamber, called the Grand-Chambre; the Chambre des Requêtes
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 of Bordeaux. The birth of the lyric poetry of the troubadourstroubadours
, aristocratic poet-musicians of S France (Provence) who flourished from the end of the 11th cent. through the 13th cent. Many troubadours were noblemen and crusader knights; some were kings, e.g.
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 occurred in Guienne (11th–12th cent.).

Guienne

, Guyenne
a former province of SW France: formed, with Gascony, the duchy of Aquitaine during the 12th century
References in periodicals archive ?
This was, however, to no avail, since, no sooner was he sent to the College de Guienne, at the age of six, than his Latin became irreparably bastardized, and was later abandoned for lack of practice.
In the mid-1450s he was promoted to Guienne King of Arms, an office that ostensibly gave him the power to grant coats of arms but only in England's now lost French possessions.
Born in Guienne about 1785, he entered the Spanish army in the officer cadet class of 1805; saw action in the war with the French, fighting at the Battle of Molins de Rey (1808), and at the sieges of Seville (February 5, 1810-August 25, 1812) and Pamplona (June 26-October 31, 1813); as a brigadier general, sent to America (1815); posted to Peru to suppress civil disorder (1818), he fought against guerrillas supporting independence from Spain, often alongside Gen.