Guillaume de Machaut


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Guillaume de Machaut:

see Machaut, Guillaume deMachaut, Guillaume de
, c.1300–1377, French poet and composer. Variants of his name include Machault, de Machaudio, and de Mascaudio. He studied theology and took holy orders. In the service of King John of Bohemia he traveled through Europe on chivalric expeditions.
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Machaut, Guillaume de

(gēyōm` də mäshō`), c.1300–1377, French poet and composer. Variants of his name include Machault, de Machaudio, and de Mascaudio. He studied theology and took holy orders. In the service of King John of Bohemia he traveled through Europe on chivalric expeditions. Later, while in the service of King Charles of Navarre, he wrote the long narrative poems Confort d'ami and Le Jugement du roi de Navarre. The recipient of numerous papal benefices, Machaut was canon at Reims from 1340 until his death. In Le Livre du voir dit (1361–65) he wrote a long poem of courtly love with musical interpolations. Considered the greatest French musician of the 14th cent. and the exponent of ars nova style in France, he wrote lais, motets, ballads, rondeaux, virelais, and one mass. He contributed to the secularization of the motet by using French texts of courtly love instead of Latin liturgy. Most important perhaps was his skillful use of rhythm with counterpoint, which made his music widely known and admired. His mass, the first complete polyphonic version, was still in use in the 16th cent. and led to the great masses of Josquin DesprezJosquin Desprez or Des Prés
, c.1440–1521, Flemish composer, b. Hainaut, regarded by his contemporaries as the greatest of his age. Luther spoke highly of Desprez, who may have instructed Erasmus in music.
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 and PalestrinaPalestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da
, c.1525–1594, Italian composer whose family name was Pierluigi; b. Palestrina, from which he took his name. Palestrina represents with Lasso the culmination of Renaissance music.
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Bibliography

See analytical biography by E. E. Leach (2011).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Guillaume de Machaut

 

(also known by the Latin name Guillelmus de Mascandio). Born circa 1300 in Machaut, Ardennes; died 1377. French poet and composer.

Guillaume de Machaut founded a school of rhetoric and canonized poetic forms for 14th-century French poetry. His poetic works are linked to the growth of urban culture and Scholasticism. His best work is A Book About Something That Really Happened (1365), a novel in verse with inserted prose letters about the love of an elderly poet for a young girl. His other works include the narrative poem The Court of the King of Navarre (1349), the rhymed chronicle The Seizure of Alexandria (c. 1370), and the narrative poem Pastoral Times, which contains a description of 14th-century musical instruments. Guillaume de Machaut was a representative of Ars nova (new art), a progressive trend in early Renaissance music. He composed church music (motets, the first mass in the history of music) and created numerous songs (virelays, ballades, rondos) with instrumental accompaniments that combined the musical poetic tradition of the trouvères with the new polyphonic art.

WORKS

Oeuvres, vols. 1-3. Paris, 1908-21.
Poésies lyriques, vols. 1-2. Published by V. Chichmarev. Paris [1909].

REFERENCES

Shishmarev, V. F. Lirika i liriki pozdnego srednevekov’ia. Paris, 1911.
Istoriia frantsuzskoi literatury, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1946. Pages 170, 172-76, 179.
Prioult, A. “Un Poète voyageur Guillaume de Machaut et la ‘Reise’ de Jean l’Aveugle roi de Bohême, en 1328-29.” Les Lettres romanes, 1950, vol. 4. Pages 3-39.
Machabey, A. Guillaume de Machaut, vols. 1-2. Paris, 1955.

I. A. LILEEVA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
One (dubious) testimony in this respect may be given in connection with Guillaume de Machaut. Now and then, the artist would visit Prague, accompanying John of Luxembourg, to whom he dedicated a multitude of celebratory poems but never actually indicated that the monarch had an affinity to music.
The text is unprejudiced, uncompromising and compelling, drawing the reader into two distinct worlds: one past, in which Guillaume de Machaut lived, created, and was remembered; and one present, where editorial principles, scholarly debates, and the techniques of analysis are perceptively and sagaciously explored.
In the second essay, Deborah McGrady shows how Guillaume de Machaut, in his Fonteinne amoureuse, uses the material object of the poem to valorize commissions, which "straddle gift-economy and mercantilism" (21), and to upend the traditional patron-poet hierarchy.
(8.) As McGrady recognizes, and as I will discuss in the second half of this essay, this also involves a turning aside from the model of Guillaume de Machaut's Voir Dit: "Froissart...
I would also recommend that Franz Liszt, Alexander Scriabin, Tchaikovsky, and Guillaume de Machaut be regulated according to Refuge's rules.
They will be singing pieces by Guillaume de Machaut, English medieval composer John Dunstaple and his contemporaries.
In the last part of this discussion of French contexts for the idea of authorship in Confessio amantis, I want to turn briefly to Gower's more immediate predecessors, Guillaume de Machaut, Jean Froissart, and the author of the Tresor amoureux.
Wood creates the arrangement by combining Chaucer's lyric with a melody by Guillaume de Machaut. This combination is effective, as Wilkins has shown, and works with such other Chaucerian lyrics as the Black Knight's song to his lady in "The Book of the Duchess" or the "Canticus Troili" in Troilus and Criseyde.
Turning, in Chapter 4, to the works of Guillaume de Machaut and Jean Froissart, Blumenfeld-Kosinski examines how these two authors outstrip even Jean de Meun in treating myth as fictive material that can be manipulated as part of their own self-validation as poets.
Thus, if Guillaume de Machaut did indeed have some kind of relationship with Peronelle (and why, otherwise, would he have inscribed her name in that text, albeit somewhat imperfectly?), the Voir Dit can hardly be denied a part in it - though not, certainly, a simple autobiographical one.