Gulf of Bothnia

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Related to Gulf of Bothnia: Baltic Sea, Aland islands

Bothnia, Gulf of:

see Baltic SeaBaltic Sea,
arm of the Atlantic Ocean, c.163,000 sq mi (422,170 sq km), including the Kattegat strait, its northwestern extension. The Øresund, Store Bælt, and Lille Bælt connect the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and Skagerrak straits, which lead to the North Sea; the
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Bothnia, Gulf of


(Swedish, Bottniska viken; Finnish, Pojanlahti; from the name of the historic Swedish province Bothnia—Swedish, Botten, literally, ground, soil), the northern part of the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Finland. Length, 668 km; greatest width, 240 km; area, 117,000 sq km.

The Vaasa reefs and shoals divide the gulf into two parts, the northern Bottenvik (Gulf of Bothnia) and the southern Bottenhavet (Sea of Bothnia), which are connected by the Norra Kvarken Strait. The gulf is connected to the Baltic Sea by the Södra Kvarken Bay between the Åland Islands and the Swedish coast. The coastal region abounds with small islands.

The greatest depth is 112 m in the northern part and 290 m in the southern. The surface current is counterclockwise. A northerly current of more saline water which originates in the northern part of the Baltic is observed in the layer near the seabed. The water temperature is approximately 0° C in February and 12–13° C in August. A large continental runoff (135 cu km annually) and heavy precipitation (26 cu km annually) determine the gulf’s low salinity (1–3 parts per thousand in the north and 4–5 parts per thousand in the south). Ice forms in October and November and remains in the north until early June. Tides are mixed in the south and diurnal in the north, reaching 0.1 m. The major harbors on the Gulf of Bothnia are Vaasa, Oulu, and Pori in Finland, and Lulea and Umea in Sweden.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ice features and ice-thrust shore forms at Luodonselka, Gulf of Bothnia, in winter 1972/73.
48 Between which two European countries does the Gulf of Bothnia lie?
The third pillar of Russian grand strategy, the client system, allowed Russia to "maximize imperial influence and diplomatic control while minimizing the use of force by the regular army." As Russia expanded to optimum lines of conquest within the Heartland, such as the Gulf of Bothnia, the Danube River, and the Black Sea, control of territory beyond these "moats" was maintained by accommodating client states such as Poland and Georgia, and client societies such as the Cossacks, Kalmyks, and Baltic Germans.
Other actions in 1854 were largely north up the Gulf of Bothnia. In 1855, most of the fleet's actions took place along the Gulf of Finland, towards Kronstadt and St.
From the twelfth to the nineteenth centuries, the Swedish empire crossed the Gulf of Bothnia, with Finland as an impoverished colony.
(The swimming image is suggested by his own daily swims, like his father before him, in the Gulf of Bothnia, and his public baths in handy French brooks.) In defense of Lang's digressions: Goethe's Italienische Reise and Hamsun's I aventyrlandet have them, too.
The Kemi chromium ore deposit, on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia in northern Finland, was discovered in 1959 and the existing open-pit mine was established in 1968 in this area.
The pounds 235,000 exhibition in Stockholm will explain the ancient technique used by fishermen in the Gulf of Bothnia for preserving herring by adding a dash of salt then letting the fish ferment.
salicaria population on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia, at Br[ddot{a}]nn[ddot{o}]landet, Holmsund, about 17 km SE of Ume[dot{a}], northern Sweden (63[degree]42' N, 20[degree]25' E).
Deltacraft, a Finnish regional airline, plans to start flights across Kvarken, the narrowest part of the Gulf of Bothnia, in the autumn.