Gulf of Finland

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Finland, Gulf of,

eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, c.285 mi (460 km) long and from c.10 to c.75 mi (15–120 km) wide, between Finland and Russia and Estonia. The shallow gulf receives the Narva River and water from Lake Lagoda and the Saimaa lakes; it is frozen from December to March. The gulf, an important corridor for Russian and Estonian shipping, contains many islands. St. Petersburg and Tallinn (Estonia) and Helsinki (Finland) are the chief ports.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Finland, Gulf of


the eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, situated between the USSR to the east and south and Finland to the north. It covers an area of approximately 30,000 sq km. It is 390 km long and 70 km wide at the entrance, reaching a maximum width of 130 km at Narva.

The northern shore of the Gulf of Finland is strongly indented and rocky, with many skerries. The eastern and southern shores are primarily low-lying and are composed of soft rocks; a glint line of bedrock borders the shores and, in places, extends to the gulf itself. The eastern section of the gulf is called Neva Bay and receives the Neva River. Vyborg Bay is located in the north, and Kopor’e, Luga, and Narva bays are located in the south. Depths decrease from 100 m in the east, at the entrance, to 20–30 m west of Kotlin Island; east of the island the maximum depth is 5 m. Neva Bay is 3–4 m deep, except in the Morskoi Canal, which links the port of Leningrad to water deep enough for large ships. The gulf abounds in islands, the largest of which are Kotlin, Moshchnyi, Bol’shoi Tiuters, Malyi Tiuters, Sommars, Gogland, Naissaar, and Osmussaar. There are many shallows, shoals, and bars near the shores; fish is abundant.

In the winter, the average water temperature at the surface is approximately 0°C; in August it ranges from 15°C at the entrance to 17°C and higher in Neva Bay. The temperature at the bottom is or 3°C. An ice cover forms offshore between late November, in the east, and mid-December, in the northwest; it begins to break up in the west in late April and finishes breaking up at the skerries in the first half of May. The salinity at the surface is 3–6 parts per thousand (‰), decreasing to 2‰ or less near Neva Bay. The water level fluctuates sharply, depending on wind and atmospheric pressure; it rises dramatically in Neva Bay (150–410 cm), causing flooding in Leningrad.

The major Soviet ports of Leningrad, Tallinn, and Vyborg are situated on the Gulf of Finland, as are the Finnish ports of Helsinki and Kotka.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Department of Marine Systems (Tallinn University of Technology) made some attempts to conduct pC[O.sub.2] measurements in the flow-through systems (FerryBox) installed onboard a ferry cruising between Tallinn and Helsinki in the Gulf of Finland in 2010 (Kikas et al., 2010).
Data on nesting Barnacle Geese were obtained during the long-term studies of waterfowl in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland conducted in 1987-2016 by the authors of this paper together with their colleagues from St.
The purpose of the study is to characterize the Corded Ware materials from the Rosson River and compare them to the Corded Ware materials from the territories to the west, and to the pottery traditions presented in the Gulf of Finland region in the 3rd millennium BC.
The study area extends to the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland, to Kurgolovo in Russia (28[degrees]E, 59[degrees]51'N).
On average permanent ice cover in the mouth of the Gulf of Finland forms by 10 February, and ice disappears from the gulf during mid-April (Seina & Peltola 1991).
It proposes to reduce the TAC by 11% for 2013 for the central zone (from 122,553 to 108,762 tonnes) while maintaining the current TAC for the Gulf of Finland (15,419 tonnes).
The salinity of the Estonian coastal waters varies from 3.3 in the Gulf of Finland to 7.3 in the open sea areas along the shores of western Estonia.
According to Wired magazine, Google thought the 56-year-old building was an ideal place to build one of its massive computing facilities because it included an underground tunnel that pulls in water from the Gulf of Finland, which Google now uses to cool its servers.
Sibur spokesman Rashid Nureev told Bloomberg in a telephone interview that the plant, which is situated in the Gulf of Finland, may be used for manufacturing facilities.
Maritime traffic makes up a large fraction of anthropogenic air pollution in the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic Sea.
Today sees the start of the connection of the Gulf of Finland section and the Central section at a sea depth of approximately 80 m.
KENYA: Research scientists install a GPS satellite collar on the neck of an elephant in the Tsavo East National Park to map out migratory routes (AP Photo) RUSSIA Icebreaker Mudyug leads bulk carrier Federal Danube, as men fish in the frozen Gulf of Finland.