Riga, Gulf of

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Riga, Gulf of,

eastern arm of the Baltic Sea, bordering on Estonia and on Latvia. At its mouth it is nearly closed off by the Estonian island of Saaremaa. The gulf, which is frozen from December to April, receives the Western Dvina (Daugava) River. Riga and Pärnu are the chief ports.

Riga, Gulf of


a gulf of the Baltic Sea off the coast of the Estonian and Latvian SSR’s. Extending inland for 174 km, the gulf has an area of 18,100 sq km. It is separated from the open sea by the Moonsund (West Estonian) Islands, and it is connected with the sea through the Irbe Strait and the Suur, Väike, Muhu, and Soela sounds. The gulf has a maximum depth of 62 m. Among the larger islands in the gulf are Ruhnu and Kihnu. Most of the coast is low-lying and sandy. The Zapadnaia Dvina (Daugava), Lielupe, and Gauja rivers empty into the gulf.

The water temperature reaches 18°C in summer and averages 0-1 °C in winter. The salinity is 3.5-6 parts per thousand. There are inertia currents with an average velocity of 8 cm per sec. The gulf freezes over from December through April. The largest port on the gulf is Riga, at the mouth of the Zapadnaia Dvina. Other important cities include the resort of Jūrmala on the southern coast, the port of Pärnu on the northern coast, and Kingisepp on Saaremaa Island.

References in periodicals archive ?
The age-specific herring (Clupea harengus membrans) weight (WAA) data averaged yearly between 1977 and 2012 from the Gulf of Riga were used (ICES, 2013).
Connection of Gulf of Riga Islands to the Baltic Heights System 1977, in 7th International Conference on Environmental Engineering: Selected papers.
The Baltic Sea ice season 2002/2003 started already in early November with rapid ice formation in the northern Bothnian Bay, in the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and in the coastal areas of the Gulf of Riga.
Typical shallow-crustal granites with rapakivi texture are found in the central part (Bogatikov & Birkis 1973), while subvolcanic granophyres occupy large areas in its northern part--on the basement of Ruhnu Island in the Gulf of Riga and in the southwestern part of Saaremaa Island (Kuuspalu 1975; Puura et al.
The following reductions were also agreed: 25% for Eastern cod, 56% for Western cod including bag limit provisions for recreational fisheries, 11% for herring in the Gulf of Riga and 20% for salmon in the Gulf of Finland.
from Brunskar in the Archipelago Sea (A-AS), Tvarminne (H-Tva), Bay of Muuga on the northern Estonian coast of the Gulf of Finland (Muu), the Roja area of the Latvian Gulf of Riga (R-GR), and the German Kiel Fjord at the southern Baltic coast (KF);
The coastline of the Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland (about 950 km) is divided into 154 sections and the nearshore of the Gulf of Riga (about 450 km) into 68 sections.
Herring: status quo for the Gulf of Bothnia, with a TAC of 106,000 tonnes (the Commission proposed 99,100 tonnes, a 7% reduction) and the Gulf of Riga, with 30,576 tonnes (the Commission proposed a 10% reduction); a 23% increase (as proposed by the Commission), which raises the TAC from 20,900 tonnes in 2012 to 25,800 tonnes in 2013 for the Western Baltic and by 15% (instead of 9% as proposed by the Commission) for the Eastern Baltic, excluding the Gulf of Bothnia, which raises this TAC to 90,180 tonnes in 2013 (78,417 in 2012)
In the northeastern Baltic region there are a number of sediment sequences (Peski, Pohja-Uhtju, Juminda, Prangli, Kihnu, Core 21 in the Gulf of Riga, Satiki, Plasumi, Grini) where, according to current knowledge (Cheremisinova 1961; Kajak 1961; Liivrand 1991, 2007; Kalnina 2001; Miettinen et al.