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(gŭl`ə), a creole languagecreole language
, any language that began as a pidgin but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the original mother tongue or tongues. Examples are the Gullah of South Carolina and Georgia (based on English), the creole of Haiti (based on French), and
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 formerly spoken by the Gullah, an African-American community of the Sea IslandsSea Islands,
chain of more than 100 low islands off the Atlantic coast of S.C., Ga., and N Fla., extending from the Santee River to the St. Johns River. The ocean side of the islands is generally sandy; the side facing the mainland is marshy.
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 and the Middle Atlantic coast of the United States. The word is probably a corruption of the African Gola or Gora, names of African tribes living in Liberia, but it may also be derived from Angola, whence many of the Gullahs' ancestors came. The Gullah dialect, spoken now by only a few hundred people, is a mixture of 17th- and 18th-century English and of a number of West African languages (among them Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba). The African influence on Gullah can be seen in the phonology, vocabulary, and grammar. Some African words in Gullah have entered American English, including goober ("peanut"), gumbo ("okra"), and voodoo ("witchcraft"). Du Bose Heyward's novel Porgy (1925), upon which Gershwin's opera is based, was written in the Gullah dialect.


See M. Crum, Gullah (1940); L. D. Turner, Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
Now you know, growing up, my father and relatives went into great detail telling us about the history of the out islands, the sea islands, and I don't know if you all are aware of this, but there's a whole culture down there, and it's called the gullah culture, g-u-l-l-a-h.
An earlier Gullah study found that 43% of 187 subjects had 25(OH)D levels below 10 ng/mL; in some, levels were undetectable.
The Gullah tradition mentioned above and found on islands off Georgia and the Carolinas is also in this section, as is a selection of tales from the Appalachian and Ozark Mountains.
After learning about the Gullah people and their basket-weaving traditions, students created sketches for their own basket creations.
Because visitors were truly enjoying the Gullah fare at local restaurants, Nelson set out to offer not only the recipes but the fixin's as well.
On the islands, you are likely to meet Gullahs, descendants of slaves who speak a mix of English and African languages after years of isolation.
Chapter two introduces us to two different Gullah gardeners on the island of St.
As the 19th century comes to its close, Rose is content to watch over her baby brother and to play among the Gullah children on the South Carolina plantation where she has lived all of her life.
When they do make passing reference to the use of magic by figures such as Gullah Jack, Marie Laveau, or rural root workers, these instances are too often treated as vestigial African folklore on the road to evangelical Protestant consolidation.
In many ways, the relationship between standard American English and the Gullah language found in the South Carolina and Georgia sea islands is the case study most similar to the English/ Gikuyu relationship.
He is fluent in the Gullah language and familiar with many of the Gullah customs.