(113.) The older scholarship consistently assumes that this is the Gumbinnen
area east of Konigsberg; however, concrete evidence for this is lacking--cf.
A set of 2 original antique maps that can be joined together to one very large 2-sheet map of an area of Lithuania and Eastern Prussia (Russian province of Kaliningrad) stretching from Klaipeda (Memel) in the north to Goldap in the south (a town on the Polish--Russian (Kaliningrad) border, Tilsit (Sovetsk) and Gumbinnen
Tilsit was renamed Sovietsk, Gumbinnen
was called Gusevo, and so on.
The commander of a cannon platoon, Lieutenant Boris Itenberg, crossed the border of East Prussia in the region of Gumbinnen
on an armored train.
In the East, Germany's troops had been less fortunate in the Battle of Gumbinnen
(20 August 1914), leading to the dispatch of two army corps from the West to the East to help the 8th Army, which was under severe pressure from the Russians.
Upon returning to East Prussia, Oldenberg visited with friends of the Inner Mission Society in his natal Konigsberg and then attended a clergy conference in the city of Gumbinnen
. After surveying the leadership, Oldenberg toured every Mazurian district, with the exception of Johannisburg, over a period of four weeks, traveling some 256 miles in mail coaches and then paying farmers to take him in their wagons to the isolated villages.
Rabbi Schwarz had served in small town Prussian pulpits in Reichenbach, Allenstein, and Gumbinnen
. In his handwritten notebook he remarked that a multitude of Jews was leaving the Prussian provinces for the big cities of Europe and the fabled cities of America.
1, 1714, near Gumbinnen
, East Prussia [now Gusev, Russia]--d.
Born in 1771, he was orphaned at an early age; entered the Prussian army (1787), and served in the suppression of revolt in Poland (March 1794-early 1795); in the Gumbinnen
(Gusev) garrison in East Prussia (1796-1806), he read widely and came to believe in the army as the "school of the nation"; joined a society devoted to military reform headed by Gerhard von Scharnhorst (1803); badly wounded at the battle of Auerstadt (October 14, 1806); as a major, he was later appointed by Scharnhorst to the new Military Reorganization Commission (January 1808), and became known as one of the Five Reformers, together with Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Clausewitz, and Grolmann; principal assistant to Scharnhorst (1808-1810) and then to his replacement, Gen.
Principal campaigns and battles: Gumbinnen
(Gusev), Tannenberg (Stebark), Masurian Lakes I, Lodz (1914); Gorlice-Tarnow, Serbia (1915); Romania (1916).
Principal battles: Stalluponen (Nesterov), Gumbinnen
(Gusev), Masurian Lakes (1914); Lodz (1915).