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Gupta (go͝opˈtə), Indian dynasty, A.D. c.320–c.550, whose empire at its height encompassed much of N India. Ancient Indian culture reached a high point during this period. Gupta paintings adorned the caves of Ajanta, its sculpture embellished the temples of Ellora, and its metaphysical speculations flowered in philosophy and in the study of mathematics.

The dynasty was founded by Chandragupta I (reigned c.320–c.330), who married a princess of the Licchavi tribe and acquired the kingdom of Magadha. He expanded his domains to include all of Bihar and Jharkhand and some of Bengal. His brilliant son, Samudragupta (reigned c.330–c.380), conquered almost all of N India and much of the Deccan.

The third and greatest of the Guptas, Chandragupta II (reigned c.380–c.414), further expanded the kingdom to include Ujjain. His reign, vividly described in the writings of Fa Hsien, a Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, was marked by prosperity throughout the land. Embassies were sent to many foreign courts, among them Rome, and a single code of law was promulgated for India. In this period also, the splendid Iron Pillar was erected (c.400) near what is now New Delhi, and Kalidasa wrote his dramas.

Chandragupta II's successors were Kumaragupta (reigned c.414–455) and Skandagupta (reigned 455–c.467). The latter repelled the invasions of the White Huns, but after his death they overran much of N India. The dynasty lingered on in Bengal until c.550.


See J. F. Fleet, Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings and Their Successors (2d ed. 1963); S. K. Maity, The Imperial Guptas and their Times.

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a dynasty that ruled northern India in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries. The Gupta rulers originated from among the petty princes of Magadha. Under Chandragupta I, who ruled from 320 to circa 340 and who adopted the title of emperor, the formation of the Gupta state began.

The rulers Samudragupta and Chandragupta II Vikra-maditya (who ruled from circa 380 until 414) brought all of northern India under their rule except for Kashmir, the western Punjab, and Rajputana. Samudragupta also carried out a campaign into the Deccan and southern India. Skandagupta, in the fifth century, had to carry on a difficult struggle against the tribes of Pushyamitra in western India and against the Ephthalites, or White Huns, on the northwestern frontiers of the state. Under Buddhagupta the state began to fall apart. Gujarat and Malwa seceded from it, and in the early sixth century the Ephthalite Huns conquered the western part of the state. Circa 528 the Gupta ruler Baladitya, in alliance with the central Indian ruler Yasodharman of Mandasor, defeated the Ephthalites, destroying their power in India except for the northwestern part. However, the Gupta rulers had been so weakened by the wars with the Ephthalites and apparently by a serious internal crisis of the state that they were unable to prevent its further irreversible decline. The Gupta state ceased to exist in the late sixth century. The Gupta era is noted as a golden age in literature, the arts, and the economy.


Mookerji, Radhakumud. The Gupta Empire. Bombay, 1948.
The History and Culture of the Indian People, 2nd ed., vol. 3. London, 1954.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


An earlier high-level application development system for 16-bit Windows applications from Unify Corporation, Sacramento, CA ( It was used to write applications that accessed SQL databases in a client/server environment. SQLWindows Solo was a demonstration version that provided all the functionality of SQLWindows, but worked only on a single machine. The software originated with Gupta Technologies, which Unify acquired in 2006. See SQLBase and Team Developer.

Team Developer

A high-level development system for 32-bit Windows applications from Unify Corporation, Sacramento, CA ( It includes a 4GL, a replication facility for OLE clients, web publishing and three-tier client/server support. Team Developer is the 32-bit counterpart of the widely used 16-bit SQLWindows. Code developed with SQLWindows migrates easily to Team Developer.

The application was developed by Gupta Technologies, LLC, which became Centura Software for a while and then reverted to its original name. Team Developer was thus titled Gupta Team Developer and Centura Team Developer. Gupta Technologies was acquired by Unify at the end of 2006.
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References in periodicals archive ?
It was made clear to him that the Guptas had access to the security agencies, Jonas said.He added that the Guptas boasted that Zuma did whatever they told him to.
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Minutes later, an unmarked police van left the compound as residents applauded police officers and hurled abuse at security guards for the Guptas.
Serving the special sweets he received with the card, Ansari said: " We've kept it for special guests." Praising the humility of the Guptas and their attachment with Saharanpur, Ansari said: " The best thing about them ( Guptas) is that they haven't forgotten the people they stayed with in the past.
The Guptas have long been allied with Zuma and the ruling African National Congress (ANC) party and are one of the richest families in South Africa.
While the Guptas are busy drafting plans for future projects and expansion, they remain tight-lipped, keeping the company Web site in "stealth mode."
Satish Gupta, a doctor of cardiology and internal medicine.
Integrating an art-historical analysis of the obverse and reverse designs with a detailed study of the weight, size and gold content of these coins, the author reconstructs their mint background, an aspect hitherto ignored in Gupta numismatics.
Vandana Gupta, the kids' mother, who was also kidnapped and later dumped, wants to shift out of Gurgaon.