Guienne(redirected from Guyenne)
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Guienne,Fr. Guyenne (both: gēĕn`, gwē–), region of SW France. The name referred to different territories at different times. Guienne as it existed from the time of Henry IV (late 16th–early 17th cent.) to the French Revolution covered the present departments of Gironde, Dordogne, Lot, Lot-et-Garonne, and Aveyron and most of Tarn-et-Garonne. It thus had no geographic unity and included part of the Aquitaine basin and part of the Massif CentralMassif Central
[Fr.,=central highlands], great mountainous plateau, c.33,000 sq mi (85,470 sq km), S central France, covering almost a sixth of the surface of the country.
..... Click the link for more information. . BordeauxBordeaux
, city (1990 pop. 213,274), capital of Gironde dept., SW France, on the Garonne River. Bordeaux is a major economic and cultural center, and a busy port accessible to oceangoing ships from the Atlantic through the Gironde River.
..... Click the link for more information. is the historical capital, the chief port, and the center of the wine industry. Guienne was synonymous with AquitaineAquitaine
, Lat. Aquitania, former duchy and kingdom in SW France. Julius Caesar conquered the Aquitani, an Iberian people of SW Gaul, in 56 B.C. The province that he created occupied the territory between the Garonne River and the Pyrenees; under Roman rule it was
..... Click the link for more information. until the Hundred Years War (1337–1453). It passed to England through the marriage (1152) of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II. In 1453, Guienne was reconquered by France. To its main components—Bordelais, PérigordPérigord
, region of SW France, now included in Dordogne and parts of Lot-et-Garonne depts. Périgueux (the capital) and Bergerac are the chief cities. The region consists of low, arid limestone plateaus, the deep and fertile valleys of the Lot and Dordogne rivers,
..... Click the link for more information. , and Agenois (see AgenAgen
, town (1990 pop. 32,223), capital of Lot-et-Garonne dept., SW France, on the Garonne River, in Guienne. It is an agricultural marketplace in the center of a fruit-growing region and an industrial center where food products, clothing, agricultural machinery, bicycles,
..... Click the link for more information. )—two former dependencies of Toulouse were added, QuercyQuercy
, region and former county, SW France, now divided between Lot and Tarn-et-Garonne depts. Cahors is the chief city. It consists of arid limestone plateaus (causses), cut by fertile valleys of the Lot, Dordogne, and Aveyron rivers.
..... Click the link for more information. and RouergueRouergue
, region of S France, in the S Massif Central, coextensive with the present Aveyron dept. Rodez, the historic capital, and Millau are the chief towns. One of the most mountainous areas of France, it is traversed by the Aveyron, Tarn, and other rivers, which form many
..... Click the link for more information. . From the 17th cent. to 1792 it formed part of the vast province of Guienne and Gascony under the jurisdiction of the parlementparlement
, in French history, the chief judicial body under the ancien régime. The parlement consisted of a number of separate chambers: the central pleading chamber, called the Grand-Chambre; the Chambre des Requêtes
..... Click the link for more information. of Bordeaux. The birth of the lyric poetry of the troubadourstroubadours
, aristocratic poet-musicians of S France (Provence) who flourished from the end of the 11th cent. through the 13th cent. Many troubadours were noblemen and crusader knights; some were kings, e.g.
..... Click the link for more information. occurred in Guienne (11th–12th cent.).
a former province of SW France: formed, with Gascony, the duchy of Aquitaine during the 12th century