Gwalior (gwäˈlēôr), city and former princely state, central India. Part of Madhya Pradesh state since 1956, the territory of Gwalior formerly consisted of one large territory and several exclaves. The state was formed in the mid-18th cent. by Ranoji Sindhia, a Maratha chief who became independent of the peshwa (hereditary Maratha prime minister). Forces of Gwalior overran much of central India until they were checked by the British in the early 19th cent., and the state was temporarily annexed to the British domain. It was restored to the Sindhias in 1886. When India became independent in 1947, Gwalior and several other princely states were combined into the state of Madhya Bharat. In 1956, Madhya Bharat merged with Madhya Pradesh. The city of Gwalior (1991 pop. 717,780) was the capital of Gwalior state. It lies at the foot of Gwalior fort, a stronghold on the Rock of Gwalior, a plateau 2 mi (3.2 km) long and 300 ft (91 m) high. Within the battlemented walls of the fort are elaborately carved palaces and temples. Huge Jain reliefs are carved in the cliffs of the Rock of Gwalior. Among the city's manufactures are textiles, carpets, glass, matches, rayon, cigarettes, porcelain ware, leather and plastic goods, and processed food. There are several colleges, a zoological garden, and an industrial-research laboratory.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.
a principality in northern India that existed until 1948. From the tenth to the early 13th century Gwalior was ruled by the Rajput dynasties. In 1232 it was annexed by the Sultanate of Delhi, and at the very end of the 14th century Gwalior began to be ruled by the Rajput Dynasty of Tomar, whose most prominent representative, Man Singh, ruled during 1486-1516. Under Akbar it was incorporated into the Mogul Empire. In 1724, the principality was captured by the Marathas. As a result of the second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-05), Gwalior lost part of its territory and became a vassal principality of the British East India Company. In independent India in 1948 the territory of Gwalior was incorporated into the union of principalities of Madhya Bharat. Since 1956 the territory of Gwalior has been part of the state of Madhya Pradesh.
a city in northern India in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Population, 361,800 (1969). Gwalior is a transportation junction and has a textile industry (cotton, silk, and rugs), machine building for the textile industry, and a metal-working industry. The city produces ceramic goods and chemicals. It has an archaeological museum, architectural monuments from the 11th through the 16th century (temples, palaces, and fortifications), and giant 15th-century statues. Gwalior consists of three parts: Gwalior proper, which grew up around an ancient fortress; Lashkar, which originated in the 19th century; and Morar, a former suburb of Gwalior.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
1. a city in N central India, in Madhya Pradesh: built around the fort, which dates from before 525; industrial and commercial centre. Pop.: 826 919 (2001)
2. a former princely state of central India, established in the 18th century: merged with Madhya Bharat in 1948, which in turn merged with Madhya Pradesh in 1956
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005