Gyor

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Győr

(dyör), Ger. Raab (räb), city (1991 est. pop. 129,598), NW Hungary, near the Slovakian border and at the confluence of the Rába and Danube rivers. Győr is a road and rail hub, a river port, a county administrative center, and a leading industrial city, known especially for its engineering works, textile plants. Manufactures include motor vehicle engines, automobiles, and furniture. Its location about midway between Budapest and Vienna makes the city an important communications point. The site of Győr was a Roman military outpost called Arabona that was evacuated in the 4th cent. A.D. and later destroyed. The Magyars built fortifications there in the 9th cent., and Győr grew around the fortress, which was later (17th cent.) used as a defensive position against the Turks. Győr became an episcopal see in 1001 and was made a royal free town in 1743. In 1849, Hungarian revolutionary forces were decisively defeated by the Austrians near Győr. The city's industrialization dates from the second half of the 19th cent. Present-day landmarks include a 12th-century cathedral (rebuilt 17th cent.), an episcopal palace, and several impressive monuments and baroque houses from the 17th and 18th cent.

Györ

 

a city in northwestern Hungary, at the confluence of the Raba River and a branch of the Danube. Administrative center of the megye (county) of Györ-Sopron. Population, 87,000 (1970). Major railroad junction and river port; third largest industrial center of the country (after Budapest and Miskolc). Industry includes metalworking (the Wilhelm Pieck Works, which produces railroad cars and machines and has about 10,000 employees, as well as a machine-tool plant), textiles (cotton, wool, and linen), and food-processing (vegetable oil, flour, alcoholic beverages, and meat). There is production of lacquers, paint, artificial leather, furniture, and construction materials. There is a pedagogical institute and a theater.

The center of Györ has a hill with a church (construction was begun in the second half of the 12th century; Hédervary’s Gothic chapel dates from the early 15th century, and baroque interior, from the 17th and 18th centuries: frescoes by F. A. Maulbertsch, 1772-81; and the classical facade, 1823). Around the hill are irregular blocks from the Middle Ages, beyond which is the more regular construction of the 19th and 20th centuries. Among Györ’s architectural monuments are the remains of the fortress walls (1564-75; architect P. Ferrabosco), the bishop’s palace (16th century), the baroque churches of St. Ignatius (1635-41; paintings by P. Troger, 1744-47) and the Carmelites (1721-25; architect M. A. Wittwer), and numerous houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, with ground-level arched galleries and bay windows. The J. Xantus Museum has collections of archaeology and folk art.

REFERENCES

Borbiró, V., and Is. Vallo. Györ városépitéstörténete. Budapest, 1956.
Jenei, F. Régi Györi házak. Budapest, 1959.