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Abnormal enlargement of the mammary glands in the male.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



excessive unilateral or bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands in males, so that they sometimes resemble female glands. Temporary, mild gynecomastia often occurs in adolescent males. Pronounced gynecomastia is one of the symptoms of primary diseases of the endocrine glands, especially the gonads. Patients develop secondary female sex characteristics (feminine pelvis, hips, and voice), lose facial hair, and suffer sexual disturbances. Gynecomastia can also develop in cases of liver diseases (cirrhosis), because of disturbances in estrogen metabolism. Treatment involves elimination of the main disease and sometimes surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the 35 patients originally assigned to bicalutamide, who developed gynaecomastia/mastalgia, tamoxifen significantly reduced the incidence of gynaecomastia.
Discontinuation of ART due to gynaecomastia and perception of good health could be indicative that patients are not properly educated on the importance of adherence to their medication even if they experience certain side effects or feel better.
In men, acne, testicular atrophy, prostate enlargement, decreased spermatogenesis, infertility, impotence and changes in libido may occur.[6] Furthermore, gynaecomastia, which may require surgical intervention, can also occur; some male users of steroids concurrently use tamoxifen or other agents to prevent or treat this condition.
Disorders such as gynaecomastia, polycystic ovary syndrome, mammary fibroadenoma, and adiposogenital dystrophy, as well as autoimmune diseases, have been reported by 2% of patients diagnosed with VKC [5].
The syndrome is characterised by body habitus changes, most commonly a combination of lipoatrophy (LA) (loss of peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), usually in the face, limbs and buttocks) and lipohypertrophy (LH) (visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, gynaecomastia and, in some cases, lipomatosis, especially in the dorsocervical area, known as a 'buffalo hump').
Enlarged breast tissue in the male patient, gynaecomastia, is a common clinical examination finding.
Table 1: Classifications of human enhancement drugs and examples of reported harms (1,2,3) Classification Examples of Examples of reported harms (3) of enhancement specific drugs Structure and Anabolic Vascular complications, liver function of steroids (4,5) damage, gynaecomastia, changes muscle in mood and behavior.
(2) The common benign causes are gynaecomastia, simple cyst, fibroadenoma, lymphnode, galactocoele, duct ectasia and infection.
Stigmata of chronic liver disease (palmar erythema, gynaecomastia, loss of pubic hair) were present in two patients only.