Georg Lukács

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Lukács, Georg

 

Born Apr. 13,1885, in Budapest; died there June 4, 1971. Hungarian philosopher and literary critic. Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

Lukács received his philosophical education in Budapest, Berlin, and Heidelberg. He was influenced by G. Simmel and M. Weber, although classical German philosophy also played a major role in the formation of his idealistic outlook. The most important of his early works were The Soul and the Forms (1910), The History of the Development of Modern Drama (1912), and The Theory of the Novel (1920). During World War I (1914-18) his protest against bourgeois culture and his sympathy for the working class ripened. Lukács broke with the Weber group and became an internationalist.

The Great October Revolution in Russia profoundly affected Lukács. In 1918 he joined the Hungarian Communist Party, and in 1919 he was People’s Commissar for Cultural Affairs of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. After the collapse of the republic in 1919 he took refuge in Vienna, where he was active in the underground activities of the Communist Party of Hungary. In the early 1920’s his political views bore the imprint of leftist sectarianism, but he soon acknowledged V. I. Lenin’s criticism of these views (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41, pp. 135-136). Later, Lukacs also recognized the shortcomings of his philosophical work History and Class Consciousness (1923). Thereafter his views were not always consistent, and he sometimes committed serious political blunders. His activity in Moscow between 1930 and 1945 was of crucial importance for the development of his philosophical outlook. Here he studied the aesthetic heritage of Marx and Engels and worked out the theory of classical realism, attacking vulgar sociology and modernism. He was affiliated with the Communist Academy and with the journal Literaturnyi kritik. His mature works were written during this period, notably the collections Nineteenth-century Literary Theories and Marxism (1937) and History of Realism (1939) and such other works as The Historical Novel, Goethe and His Epoch, and Young Hegel.

In 1945, Lukács returned to Hungary, where he took part in the creation of the new Hungarian culture. He was active in the peace movement and a member of the World Peace Council. His attacks on contemporary bourgeois philosophy attracted worldwide attention (The Destruction of Reason, 1954). In the 1950’s he worked on a systematic exposition of Marxist aesthetics. The first two volumes of this work (The Specific Character of Aesthetics, 1963) contain an analysis of the principles of realism in art from the standpoint of Lenin’s theory of reflection, which drew

sharp criticism from the bourgeois press and revisionists, including the Frankfurt school and R. Garaudy. His last works were devoted to the ontology of social existence. Other parts of this vast work have been published posthumously. Lukács was awarded the Kossuth Prize in 1948 and 1955 and the Jubilee Medal of the USSR in commemoration of the centennial of Lenin’s birth.

WORKS

Lenin: Studie überden Zusammenhang seiner Gedanken. Berlin-Vienna, 1924.
Fortschritt und Reaktion in der deutschen Literatur. Berlin, 1947.
Existentialisme ou marxisme. Paris, 1948.
Schicksalswende: Beiträge zu einer neuen deutschen Ideologic, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1956.
Adalékok az esztétika történetéhez. Budapest, 1957.
Beiträge zur Geschichte der Ästhetik. Berlin, 1956.
Német realisták. Budapest, 1955.
Skizze einer Geschichte der neuren deutschen Literatur. Berlin, 1955.
A különösség mint esztetikai kategoria. Budapest, 1957.
Wider den missverstandenen Realismus. Hamburg, 1958.
Schriften zur Literatursoziologie: Ausgewahlt und eingeleitet von R. Ludz. Berlin, 1961.
Utam markhoz, vols. 1-2. Budapest, 1971.
In Russian translation:
“Materializatsiia i proletarskoe soznanie.” Vestnik Sotsialisticheskoi Akademii, 1923, books 4-6.
Bor’ba gumanizma i varvarstva. Tashkent, 1943.
References in periodicals archive ?
This essay proposes a triangulated reading of the work of Eileen Chang [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (1920-1995), Gyorgy Lukacs (1885-1971), and Lev Tolstoy (1828-1910) as a way of exploring these simultaneous conjunctions and disjunctions.
As part of that effort, the city council of Budapest, which is dominated by Orban Fidesz party, will reportedly follow through on plans to remove a statue of the renowned Jewish literary critic and Marxist theoretician Gyorgy Lukacs, reported Le Monde.
If the philosophical weight and media savvy of the Frankfurt School have a counterpart in the arts, they might be found in the Kunstakademie Dusseldorf of the 1960s, a school that produced not only Bandau but Joseph Beuys, Anselm Kiefer, Gerhard Richter, Hilla Becher, and a generation of German artists who took up a kind of intellectual residence in what Gyorgy Lukacs unforgettably described as the Grand Hotel Abyss.
In Germany, one of the key early thinkers was the Hungarian literary critic and philosopher Gyorgy Lukacs, who wrote in German and who became the inspiration of the Frankfurt School.
The typographical change might have made all the difference to generalist readers, who may not stop to savor Della Seta's sometimes detailed discussions of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), Gyorgy Lukacs (1885-1971), Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951), Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005), Michel Foucault (1926-1984), Edward Said (1935-2003), or the more recent musicological expositors of these thinkers.
No prosseguimento da sua atividade critica, tornou-se--juntamente com Leandro Konder, numa parceria que se iniciou nos anos 1960 e continua ate hoje--um interlocutor de Gyorgy Lukacs e produziu mais alguns ensaios que haveriam de ser consagrados (entre outros, sobre Lima Barreto, Marcel Proust e Franz Kafka).
El lector fluye por la Teoria de la novela de Gyorgy Lukacs (1885-1971), por las categorias de Karl Marx (1818-1883) y Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), por la musica de Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951) o el psicoanalisis de Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), en medio, eso si, de unas biografias de juventud algo aridas: amplias contextualizaciones familiares, educacion, relacion con la religion, tesis doctorales o primeros trabajos academicos son algunas de las referencias en las que mas insiste el autor.
A vida de Gyorgy Lukacs repercute, de uma maneira surpreendente, em algumas frases de sua Theorie sur le Roman (Teoria sobre o Romance), publicada em 1916.
Parafraseando a Gyorgy Lukacs, uno podria decir que las novelas de Heredia muestran los movimientos de un heroe degradado buscando valores absolutos en un mundo degradado.
En este contexto, un intelectual periferico en la academia alemana (4), Gyorgy Lukacs, hizo una contribucion decisiva a la filosofia y la critica de la cultura al desarrollar el concepto de cosificacion y fundamentarlo desde una dialectica marxista en Historia y consciencia de clase, cuya publicacion en 1923 inaugura la tradicion del marxismo occidental (cfr.
7) Like her one-time comrade Gyorgy Lukacs, Duczynska viewed the "socially typical" individual--product of a continual reshaping of the self during an on-going dialectical process within society--as the central issue.