hydrogen bomb

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hydrogen bomb

or

H-bomb,

weapon deriving a large portion of its energy from the nuclear fusion of hydrogenhydrogen
[Gr.,=water forming], gaseous chemical element; symbol H; at. no. 1; interval in which at. wt. ranges 1.00784–1.00811; m.p. −259.14°C;; b.p. −252.87°C;; density 0.08988 grams per liter at STP; valence usually +1.
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 isotopes. In an atomic bombatomic bomb
or A-bomb,
weapon deriving its explosive force from the release of nuclear energy through the fission (splitting) of heavy atomic nuclei. The first atomic bomb was produced at the Los Alamos, N.Mex., laboratory and successfully tested on July 16, 1945.
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, uranium or plutonium is split into lighter elements that together weigh less than the original atoms, the remainder of the mass appearing as energy. Unlike this fission bomb, the hydrogen bomb functions by the fusion, or joining together, of lighter elements into heavier elements. The end product again weighs less than its components, the difference once more appearing as energy. Because extremely high temperatures are required in order to initiate fusion reactions, the hydrogen bomb is also known as a thermonuclear bomb.

The first thermonuclear bomb was exploded in 1952 at EnewetakEnewetak,
 Enewetok,
or Eniwetok
, circular atoll, central Pacific, one of the Ralik Chain in the Marshall Islands. Enewetak is c.50 mi (80 km) in circumference and comprises about 40 islets surrounding a large lagoon.
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 by the United States, the second in 1953 by Russia (then the USSR). Great Britain, France, and China have also exploded thermonuclear bombs, and these five nations comprise the so-called nuclear club—nations that have the capability to produce nuclear weapons and admit to maintaining an inventory of them. The three smaller Soviet successor states that inherited nuclear arsenals (Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Belarus) relinquished all nuclear warheads, which have been removed to Russia. Several other nations either have tested thermonuclear devices or claim to have the capability to produce them, but officially state that they do not maintain a stockpile of such weapons; among these are India, Israel, and Pakistan. South Africa's apartheid regime built six nuclear bombs but dismantled them later.

The presumable structure of a thermonuclear bomb is as follows: at its center is an atomic bomb; surrounding it is a layer of lithium deuteride (a compound of lithium and deuterium, the isotope of hydrogen with mass number 2); around it is a tamper, a thick outer layer, frequently of fissionable material, that holds the contents together in order to obtain a larger explosion. Neutrons from the atomic explosion cause the lithium to fission into helium, tritium (the isotope of hydrogen with mass number 3), and energy. The atomic explosion also supplies the temperatures needed for the subsequent fusion of deuterium with tritium, and of tritium with tritium (50,000,000°C; and 400,000,000°C;, respectively). Enough neutrons are produced in the fusion reactions to produce further fission in the core and to initiate fission in the tamper.

Since the fusion reaction produces mostly neutrons and very little that is radioactive, the concept of a "clean" bomb has resulted: one having a small atomic trigger, a less fissionable tamper, and therefore less radioactive falloutfallout,
minute particles of radioactive material produced by nuclear explosions (see atomic bomb; hydrogen bomb; Chernobyl) or by discharge from nuclear-power or atomic installations and scattered throughout the earth's atmosphere by winds and convection currents.
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. Carrying this progression further results in the neutron bomb, which has a minimum trigger and a nonfissionable tamper; it produces blast effects and a hail of lethal neutrons but almost no radioactive fallout and little long-term contamination. This theoretically would cause minimal physical damage to buildings and equipment but kill most living things. Developed in 1958 by the United States and successfully tested, a number of countries are believed to have included such weapons in their nuclear arsenals; the United States built several hundred neutron bombs in the 1980s but did not deploy them.

The theorized cobalt bomb is, on the contrary, a radioactively "dirty" bomb having a cobalt tamper. Instead of generating additional explosive force from fission of the uranium, the cobalt is transmuted into cobalt-60, which has a half-life of 5.26 years and produces energetic (and thus penetrating) gamma rays. The half-life of Co-60 is just long enough so that airborne particles will settle and coat the earth's surface before significant decay has occurred, thus making it impractical to hide in shelters. This prompted physicist Leo SzilardSzilard, Leo
, 1898–1964, American nuclear physicist and biophysicist, born in Hungary. He was educated at the Budapest Institute of Technology and the Univ. of Berlin, receiving a doctorate from the latter in 1922. Working at the Univ.
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 to call it a "doomsday device" since it was capable of wiping out life on earth.

Like other types of nuclear explosion, the explosion of a hydrogen bomb creates an extremely hot zone near its center. In this zone, because of the high temperature, nearly all of the matter present is vaporized to form a gas at extremely high pressure. A sudden overpressure, i.e., a pressure far in excess of atmospheric pressure, propagates away from the center of the explosion as a shock wave, decreasing in strength as it travels. It is this wave, containing most of the energy released, that is responsible for the major part of the destructive mechanical effects of a nuclear explosion. The details of shock wave propagation and its effects vary depending on whether the burst is in the air, underwater, or underground.

See disarmament, nucleardisarmament, nuclear,
the reduction and limitation of the various nuclear weapons in the military forces of the world's nations. The atomic bombs dropped (1945) on Japan by the United States in World War II demonstrated the overwhelming destructive potential of nuclear weapons
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 and nuclear weaponsnuclear weapons,
weapons of mass destruction powered by atomic, rather than chemical, processes. Nuclear weapons produce large explosions and hazardous radioactive byproducts by means of either nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.
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; see also nuclear energynuclear energy,
the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom and released through fission, fusion, or radioactivity. In these processes a small amount of mass is converted to energy according to the relationship E = mc2, where E is energy, m
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.

Bibliography

See R. Rhodes, Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb (1995).

hydrogen bomb

[′hī·drə·jən ′bäm]
(ordnance)
A device in which heavy hydrogen nuclei, under intense heat and pressure, undergo an uncontrolled, self-sustaining fusion reaction to produce an explosion. Also known as H bomb.

hydrogen bomb

(H-bomb) thermonuclear device more destructive than A-bomb. [Am. Sci.: EB, IX: 949]
References in periodicals archive ?
Fusion-powered H-bombs can have yields measurable in megatons.
" Later in the article, Brookings Institution expert Richard Bush says that Kim Jong Un appears to have exaggerated his claims to have tested an H-bomb.)
South Korean politician Lee Cheol Woo said he had been briefed by the country's National Intelligence Service and was told even a failed H-bomb detonation would have a higher explosive yield than was registered.
Later, when Zhou Enlai asked the director of the PLAAF Engineering Department about aircraft appropriate for an H-bomb mission, the director recommended the Q-5.
When the H-bomb was eventually produced, Livermore was given most of the credit.
Despite our best efforts, every now and then, we make the odd slip (yes, it was an A-bomb that destroyed Hiroshima and not an H-bomb, as August's Quizzical claimed), but we are proud of our good record in this area of magazine editing.
to H-Bomb air bases in North Central Russia"; "From Britain, 2 hrs.
As "father of the H-bomb" and a defense strategist, Teller left a controversial legacy when he died last year.
government sues The Progressive in an attempt to prevent publication of the article "The H-Bomb Secret: How We Got It--Why We're Telling It." A Milwaukee federal court issues a prior restraint order against The Progressive for seven months.
Their grassroots efforts overcame heavy spending from industry opponents, which dubbed the ballot initiative, Measure H, the "H-bomb." Industry opponents of the measure outspent proponents by a seven-to-one margin.
For the forty years after the development of the H-Bomb we thought of war as a possible, but terminal, event.
Model for a Death Wish Generation (all works 2002), a replica of an early H-bomb, sat like a giant globe, dimly spotlighted and mysterious, in the near-center of the darkened gallery.