hydrogen cyanide

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hydrogen cyanide,

HCN, colorless, volatile, and extremely poisonous chemical compound whose vapors have a bitter almond odor. It melts at −14°C; and boils at 26°C;. It is miscible in all proportions with water or ethanol and is soluble in ether. Its water solution is a weak acid (see acids and basesacids and bases,
two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water. Properties
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) commonly known as hydrocyanic acid or prussic acid. Its salts are called cyanidescyanide
, chemical compound containing the cyano group, -CN. Cyanides are salts or esters of hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid, HCN) formed by replacing the hydrogen with a metal (e.g., sodium or potassium) or a radical (e.g., ammonium or ethyl).
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. Hydrogen cyanide may be synthesized directly from ammonia and carbon monoxide or from ammonia, oxygen (or air), and natural gas. It is a byproduct of the production of coke from coal and is recovered (along with hydrogen sulfide) from coke-oven exhaust gases. It may also be prepared by reacting a cyanide salt, e.g., calcium cyanide, with a strong acid, e.g., sulfuric acid, or by thermal decomposition of formamide. Because impure hydrogen cyanide can undergo spontaneous explosive polymerization and decomposition, a small amount of stabilizer (usually phosphoric acid) is added to it. The principal use of hydrogen cyanide is in the manufacture of organic chemicals, e.g., acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate, and adiponitrile, that are used in producing synthetic fibers and plastics. It is also used in the chemical laboratory, and is sometimes used in agriculture as a fumigant. Hydrogen cyanide is found in nature in some vegetable substances, e.g., bitter almond, peach stones, cherry and cherry laurel leaves, and sorghum; it is usually combined in glycoside molecules (see sugarsugar,
compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen belonging to a class of substances called carbohydrates. Sugars fall into three groups: the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The monosaccharides are the simple sugars; they include fructose and glucose.
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) and is released when they are broken down by enzymes during metabolism.
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hydrogen cyanide

[′hī·drə·jən ′sī·ə‚nīd]
(inorganic chemistry)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Out of 160 microbes, 20 isolates were morphologically and taxonomically identified followed by testing their ability to exhibit any or multiple of; Auxins (IAA), ammonia, HCN, phosphate solubilization, lytic enzymes production and antagonism traits.
The guiding question of the semi-structured interview for the health professionals in HCN services was, "Tell me about caring for the child/ adolescent with a chronic disease and their family in the service where you work"; for the managers, it was, "What is your perception of health care for children/adolescents with chronic diseases in the municipality?"
The probability of HCC in HCN increased as the size of the thyroid nodule got bigger and was 53.8% in nodules which were more than 4 cm in diameter.
When expatriate managers have high CCM, this sends a positive signal in regard to how much headquarters staff care about HCN issues and local employees.
We find that although DC provides a potential to improve the mobility robustness of HCN, it also brings in overall SINR degradation as a price.
While Fitch acknowledges the strength of HCN's RIDEA performance to-date, it has not been proven through cycles as the investments were largely made in recent years after the changes in RIDEA regulations allowed for the investments.
A Figura 5 traca o esboco de um grafico que correlaciona as proporcoes [I.sub.H-X,C]/[I.sub.H-X,m] e os balancos de carga nos hidrogenios dos doadores de protons HCN e HF.
Bano and Mussarat (25) also reported that Pseudomonas strain NJ-15 was a good biocontrol agent with high amount of IAA, HCN and siderophore production.
HCN is a real estate investment trust that invests across the full spectrum of seniors housing and health care real estate.
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate productivity of cassava and to determine the chemical composition in foliage, especially the tannin and HCN content, in several different varieties harvested at three harvest frequencies.
Cultivar JS-2002 produced 23, 36 and 57% less HCN contents compared to local sorghum at pre-booting, booting and 50% heading stage, respectively.