HIV

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HIV,

human immunodeficiency virus, either of two closely related retrovirusesretrovirus,
type of RNA virus that, unlike other RNA viruses, reproduces by transcribing itself into DNA. An enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows a retrovirus's RNA to act as the template for this RNA-to-DNA transcription.
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 that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
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. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. HIV-2, seen more often in western Africa, has a slower course than HIV-1. There are many strains of both types and the virus mutates rapidly, a trait that has made it especially difficult for researchers to find an effective treatment or vaccine. In many cases, a person's immune system will fight off the invasion of HIV for many years, producing billions of CD4 cells daily, always trying to keep up with the HIV's mutations, before it succumbs and permits the well-known signs of AIDS to develop.

HIV is especially lethal because it attacks the very immune system cells (variously called T4, CD4, or T-helper lymphocytes) that would ordinarily fight off such a viral infection. Receptors on these cells appear to enable the viral RNA to enter the cell. As with all retroviruses, once the RNA is inside the cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase allows it to act as the template for its own RNA to DNA transcription. The resultant viral DNA inserts itself into a cell's DNA and is reproduced along with the cell and its daughters. In 2012 the Food and Drug Administration approved a pill that combines two antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir and emtricitabine, for use in preventing infection with HIV, and two years later the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention called for the drug combination to be prescribed to uninfected patients who are at risk for AIDS in an effort to reduce number of new HIV infections.

The exact origin of the virus in humans is unclear. Scientists surmise that HIV-1 jumped from African chimpanzees, who harbor a similar strain of SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), to humans via the butchering of meat or an animal bite. The first case documented in humans dates from 1959, but genetic analysis published in 2008 estimated that it originated some time between 1884 and 1924. A 2014 analysis suggested that the most widespread form of HIV-1 in humans originated in 1920s in what was then the Belgian Congo. AIDS is believed to have spread to the Caribbean in the 1960s and the United States in the early 1970s. The virus was isolated by Luc MontagnierMontagnier, Luc Antoine,
1932–, French virologist, M.D. Sorbonne, 1960. Montagnier was a researcher at the Medical Research Council at Carshalton, London (1960–63), the Institute of Virology in Glasgow, Scotland (1963–65), and the Curie Institute in Orsay,
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 of France's Pasteur Institute in 1983. It went through several name changes before the official name, human immunodeficiency virus, was agreed upon.

HIV

References in periodicals archive ?
The declines in incidence of HIV infection among black women and adolescent females signal some progress toward reducing racial disparities among women, and these findings are consistent with previous research that indicated reductions in racial/ethnic disparities in diagnosis of HIV infection among women during 2010-2014 using different measures of disparity (absolute rate difference, diagnosis disparity ratio, and index of disparity) (4).
Read also: Nurses strike drove up HIV infection of children
"Almost 50 percent of pregnant women with HIV infection underwent cesarean delivery," the authors write.
Persons in the early stages of HIV infection are the major drivers of new infections.
A new study published online in (http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/brain.2016.0457) Brain Connectivity  found that limited-treated or untreated HIV infections in young adults may affect their brain connections, which in turn compromises their cognitive abilities.
Autoimmune diseases are well-documented manifestations of HIV infection and are generally considered to be a manifestation of late stage of the disease.3 Although HIV infection is often associated with several rheumatic diseases, the coexistence with DLE is extremely uncommon.
Throughout the 1990s, awareness of HIV and AIDS continued to grow, as information about HIV infection and its mode of transmission in high profile figures such as movie star Rock Hudson, iconic musician Freddie Mercury, pianist and entertainer Liberace, basketball player Magic Johnson and tennis player Arthur Ashe became public knowledge.
Learning more about how HPV affects the risk of HIV infection is important because two vaccines that prevent HPV infection are already available and a third vaccine is being developed.
Major advances in treatment for HIV infection have since transformed HIV/AIDS from a terminal illness to a chronic disease for individuals with access to HIV therapies and expert medical HIV care.
'These figures indicate a plateau over the past three years and it is clear we will not start driving HIV infection rates down unless governments at both state and national levels increase their investments in prevention programs,' said AFAO Executive Director Don Baxter.

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