To date, there have been no reports in the literature of HIVAN
presenting with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS).
In the 1980s, HIVAN
was an uncommon cause of ESRD in the USA.
is the most common cause of chronic renal failure in patients who are HIV-seropositive (Monahan et al., 2001; Sothinathan, Briggs, & Eustace, 2001; Winston, Burns, & Klotman, 2000).
Comorbid conditions, such as anemia, HIVAN
, and even stress can further impair an already compromised patient.
Results showed tubulointerstitial disease in 3, HIVAN
or collapsing nephropathy in 2 and interstitial nephritis with glomerulosclerosis in 1 patient.
It appears that HIVAN
occurs in the setting of specific host genes and it has been widely accepted that the gene encoding a non-myosin A heavy chain (MYH9) is associated with FGS, HIVAN
, and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to hypertension in individuals of African descent [23, 24].
was defined by the presence of collapsing glomerular lesions, podocyte proliferation, microcystic tubular dilatation and flattening and atrophy of tubular cells (18).
Spectrum of glomerular disease in HIV Glomerular pattern Subtypes HIV-FGS or 'classic' HIVAN
Some have described a mixed (HIV-associated nephropathy) variant of HIV-FGS in combination with a proliferative glomerulonephritis HIV-ICD (this group of patients Mesangial proliferative may have co-infection with hepatitis B or C) Membranoproliferative (type I and III) Lupus-like Exudative-proliferative Crescentic IgA Membranous Various glomerulonephropathies Minimal change (this is a heterogeneous group with different aetiologies) Immunotactoid Amyloidosis HIV-TTP/HUS TTP/HUS Comorbid disease Diabetic nephropathy Hypertensive nephrosclerosis Auto-immune disease (e.g.
(8) Clinicians learned that cART prevents or reverses HIVAN
, developments consistent with a plateau in ESRD incidence after cART arrived (11) and with the observation that ongoing HIV replication directly injures the kidney.
CG shares features with HIV induced nephropathy (HIVAN
) but has been shown to be a totally separate entity on its own independent of HIV infection [2, 7, 8].
Singhal, "Protease inhibitors modulate apoptosis in mesangial cells derived from a mouse model of HIVAN
," Kidney International, vol.
(4) Before 1996 a kidney condition called HIV-associated nephropathy, or HIVAN
, emerged as a serious problem in HIV-positive people.