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Holland,former county of the Holy Roman Empire and, from 1579 to 1795, chief member of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Its name is popularly applied to the entire Netherlands. Holland has been divided since 1840 into two provinces, North HollandNorth Holland,
Dutch Noordholland , province (1994 pop. 2,457,300), c.1,080 sq mi (2,800 sq km), NW Netherlands, a peninsula between the North Sea in the west and the Markermeer and IJsselmeer in the east. The province includes several of the West Frisian islands.
..... Click the link for more information. and South HollandSouth Holland,
Dutch Zuidholland, province (1994 pop. 3,313,200), c.1,085 sq mi (2,810 sq km), W Netherlands, bounded by the North Sea in the west. The Hague is the capital; other cities include Rotterdam, Dordrecht, Leiden, Delft, Schiedam, and Gouda.
..... Click the link for more information. . The county was created in the early 10th cent. and originally controlled not only present North and South Holland, but also ZeelandZeeland
, province (1994 pop. 363,900), c.650 sq mi (1,680 sq km), SW Netherlands, bordering on Belgium in the south and the North Sea in the west. The main cities are Middelburg (the capital) and Vlissingen.
..... Click the link for more information. and part of medieval FrieslandFriesland
, province (1994 pop. 607,000), c.1,325 sq mi (3,430 sq km), N Netherlands. Leeuwarden is the capital. The province includes several of the West Frisian Islands along the North Sea coast and borders on the IJsselmeer in the southwest.
..... Click the link for more information. . William II was elected (1247) German king, but was unable to exert his authority; he died (1255) in a campaign against the independence-minded West Frisians. In 1299, John of Avesnes, count of Hainaut, seized Holland, which came (1345) into the hands of the Bavarian house of Wittelsbach through marriage. The house of Wittelsbach retained possession of Holland until 1433, when Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, wrested it from Jacqueline (or Jacoba), countess of HainautHainaut
, Du. Henegouwen, province (1991 pop. 1,278,791), 1,437 sq mi (3,722 sq km), S Belgium, bordering on France in the south. The chief cities of the predominately French-speaking province are Mons, the capital; Charleroi; and Tournai.
..... Click the link for more information. , Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland. In the civil strife that accompanied this event the party of the Kabeljauws [codfish], representing the cities, fought the Hoeks [fish hooks], the nobles who supported Jacqueline. The Hoeks again rebelled when Archduke Maximilian (later Emperor Maximilian I) assumed the guardianship over the Netherlands after the death (1482) of Mary of Burgundy; their fleet was annihilated and their leaders executed in 1490. The cloth industry and commerce of Holland, though they developed later than those of FlandersFlanders
, former county in the Low Countries, extending along the North Sea and W of the Scheldt (Escaut) River. It is divided among East Flanders and West Flanders provs., Belgium; Nord and Pas-de-Calais depts., France; and (to a small extent) Zeeland prov., the Netherlands.
..... Click the link for more information. and BrabantBrabant
, former province, central Belgium. The region is drained by the Dijle, Senne, and Demer rivers. Much of its soil is fertile and under cultivation, and industry is prevalent. Belgian Brabant occupies the southern part of the former duchy of Brabant.
..... Click the link for more information. , began to rival those of BrugesBruges
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
..... Click the link for more information. and AntwerpAntwerp,
Du. Antwerpen, Fr. Anvers, city (1991 pop. 467,518), capital of Antwerp prov., N Belgium, on the Scheldt River. It is one of the busiest ports in Europe; a commercial, industrial, and financial center; and a rail junction.
..... Click the link for more information. in the 15th cent. The ports of Holland were closely linked with the Hanseatic LeagueHanseatic League
, mercantile league of medieval German towns. It was amorphous in character; its origin cannot be dated exactly. Originally a Hansa was a company of merchants trading with foreign lands.
..... Click the link for more information. and later became, after the Netherlands had gained independence, major entrepôts and shipbuilding centers. Holland led in the struggle (16th–17th cent.) for Dutch independence, and because it dominated the States-General, its history became virtually identical with that of the NetherlandsNetherlands
, Du. Nederland or Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 16,407,000), 15,963 sq mi (41,344 sq km), NW Europe.
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Holland,city (1990 pop. 30,745), Allegan and Ottawa counties, SW Mich., near Lake Michigan, on Lake Macatawa, in a dairy and poultry area; founded 1847 by Dutch settlers, inc. 1867. Furnaces have been made there since 1906. Other products include food and beverages, machinery, metal products, electronic equipment, wastewater treatment equipment, furniture, delftware, chemicals, and boats. Tulip growing is an important industry, and the city's many Dutch descendants hold a week-long tulip festival each spring. Points of interest include a replica of a 19th-century Dutch village and an operating windmill brought from the Netherlands. The Dutch Reformed Church operates Hope College and Western Theological Seminary. A Coast Guard station is on Lake Macatawa, and Holland State Park is nearby. The city is a popular summer resort.
a medieval county, later a province of the Netherlands.
The county of Holland as a feudal territory (fief), originally bound by vassal relations to the Holy Roman Empire, was formed in the tenth century. (The name Holland appeared later.) As a result of conflict with neighboring feudal holdings, it gradually expanded, annexing West Friesland in 1287 and almost all of Zeeland in 1323. From 1299 to 1354 it was joined with Henegouwen (Hainaut) under the dynasty of the Avesnes. From 1433 to 1477 it was part of the Burgundian state, and from 1477 to 1482 it came under the control of the Hapsburgs as one of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands.
Holland was the most developed province in the northern Netherlands, with cloth manufacture, fishing, shipping, shipbuilding, and trade being especially important. The 15th and 16th centuries witnessed the development of early capitalist relations in this area, which played a leading role in the Dutch bourgeois revolution of the 16th century. As a result of the revolt of 1572. it was virtually freed from the Spanish Hapsburg yoke and became the political and economic nucleus of the newly formed bourgeois Republic of the United Provinces. Its history in the 17th and 18th centuries was linked with that of the United Provinces (often known as Holland or the Dutch Republic) and later with that of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands (also sometimes known unofficially as Holland). In the modern Netherlands, the territory of Holland is divided into two provinces: Noord-Holland, with its administrative center at Haarlem, and Zuid-Holland, with its center at The Hague.
A. N. CHISTOZVONOV