Holland


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Holland,

former county of the Holy Roman Empire and, from 1579 to 1795, chief member of the United Provinces of the Netherlands. Its name is popularly applied to the entire Netherlands. Holland has been divided since 1840 into two provinces, North HollandNorth Holland,
Dutch Noordholland , province (1994 pop. 2,457,300), c.1,080 sq mi (2,800 sq km), NW Netherlands, a peninsula between the North Sea in the west and the Markermeer and IJsselmeer in the east. The province includes several of the West Frisian islands.
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 and South HollandSouth Holland,
Dutch Zuidholland, province (1994 pop. 3,313,200), c.1,085 sq mi (2,810 sq km), W Netherlands, bounded by the North Sea in the west. The Hague is the capital; other cities include Rotterdam, Dordrecht, Leiden, Delft, Schiedam, and Gouda.
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. The county was created in the early 10th cent. and originally controlled not only present North and South Holland, but also ZeelandZeeland
, province (1994 pop. 363,900), c.650 sq mi (1,680 sq km), SW Netherlands, bordering on Belgium in the south and the North Sea in the west. The main cities are Middelburg (the capital) and Vlissingen.
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 and part of medieval FrieslandFriesland
or Frisia
, province (1994 pop. 607,000), c.1,325 sq mi (3,430 sq km), N Netherlands. Leeuwarden is the capital. The province includes several of the West Frisian Islands along the North Sea coast and borders on the IJsselmeer in the southwest.
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. William II was elected (1247) German king, but was unable to exert his authority; he died (1255) in a campaign against the independence-minded West Frisians. In 1299, John of Avesnes, count of Hainaut, seized Holland, which came (1345) into the hands of the Bavarian house of Wittelsbach through marriage. The house of Wittelsbach retained possession of Holland until 1433, when Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, wrested it from Jacqueline (or Jacoba), countess of HainautHainaut
, Du. Henegouwen, province (1991 pop. 1,278,791), 1,437 sq mi (3,722 sq km), S Belgium, bordering on France in the south. The chief cities of the predominately French-speaking province are Mons, the capital; Charleroi; and Tournai.
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, Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland. In the civil strife that accompanied this event the party of the Kabeljauws [codfish], representing the cities, fought the Hoeks [fish hooks], the nobles who supported Jacqueline. The Hoeks again rebelled when Archduke Maximilian (later Emperor Maximilian I) assumed the guardianship over the Netherlands after the death (1482) of Mary of Burgundy; their fleet was annihilated and their leaders executed in 1490. The cloth industry and commerce of Holland, though they developed later than those of FlandersFlanders
, former county in the Low Countries, extending along the North Sea and W of the Scheldt (Escaut) River. It is divided among East Flanders and West Flanders provs., Belgium; Nord and Pas-de-Calais depts., France; and (to a small extent) Zeeland prov., the Netherlands.
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 and BrabantBrabant
, former province, central Belgium. The region is drained by the Dijle, Senne, and Demer rivers. Much of its soil is fertile and under cultivation, and industry is prevalent. Belgian Brabant occupies the southern part of the former duchy of Brabant.
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, began to rival those of BrugesBruges
or Brugge
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
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 and AntwerpAntwerp,
Du. Antwerpen, Fr. Anvers, city (1991 pop. 467,518), capital of Antwerp prov., N Belgium, on the Scheldt River. It is one of the busiest ports in Europe; a commercial, industrial, and financial center; and a rail junction.
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 in the 15th cent. The ports of Holland were closely linked with the Hanseatic LeagueHanseatic League
, mercantile league of medieval German towns. It was amorphous in character; its origin cannot be dated exactly. Originally a Hansa was a company of merchants trading with foreign lands.
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 and later became, after the Netherlands had gained independence, major entrepôts and shipbuilding centers. Holland led in the struggle (16th–17th cent.) for Dutch independence, and because it dominated the States-General, its history became virtually identical with that of the NetherlandsNetherlands
, Du. Nederland or Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, officially Kingdom of the Netherlands, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 16,407,000), 15,963 sq mi (41,344 sq km), NW Europe.
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.

Holland,

city (1990 pop. 30,745), Allegan and Ottawa counties, SW Mich., near Lake Michigan, on Lake Macatawa, in a dairy and poultry area; founded 1847 by Dutch settlers, inc. 1867. Furnaces have been made there since 1906. Other products include food and beverages, machinery, metal products, electronic equipment, wastewater treatment equipment, furniture, delftware, chemicals, and boats. Tulip growing is an important industry, and the city's many Dutch descendants hold a week-long tulip festival each spring. Points of interest include a replica of a 19th-century Dutch village and an operating windmill brought from the Netherlands. The Dutch Reformed Church operates Hope College and Western Theological Seminary. A Coast Guard station is on Lake Macatawa, and Holland State Park is nearby. The city is a popular summer resort.

Holland

 

a medieval county, later a province of the Netherlands.

The county of Holland as a feudal territory (fief), originally bound by vassal relations to the Holy Roman Empire, was formed in the tenth century. (The name Holland appeared later.) As a result of conflict with neighboring feudal holdings, it gradually expanded, annexing West Friesland in 1287 and almost all of Zeeland in 1323. From 1299 to 1354 it was joined with Henegouwen (Hainaut) under the dynasty of the Avesnes. From 1433 to 1477 it was part of the Burgundian state, and from 1477 to 1482 it came under the control of the Hapsburgs as one of the 17 provinces of the Netherlands.

Holland was the most developed province in the northern Netherlands, with cloth manufacture, fishing, shipping, shipbuilding, and trade being especially important. The 15th and 16th centuries witnessed the development of early capitalist relations in this area, which played a leading role in the Dutch bourgeois revolution of the 16th century. As a result of the revolt of 1572. it was virtually freed from the Spanish Hapsburg yoke and became the political and economic nucleus of the newly formed bourgeois Republic of the United Provinces. Its history in the 17th and 18th centuries was linked with that of the United Provinces (often known as Holland or the Dutch Republic) and later with that of the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands (also sometimes known unofficially as Holland). In the modern Netherlands, the territory of Holland is divided into two provinces: Noord-Holland, with its administrative center at Haarlem, and Zuid-Holland, with its center at The Hague.

A. N. CHISTOZVONOV

Holland

1
1.  Henry. 1745--1806, British neoclassical architect. His work includes Brooks's Club (1776) and Carlton House (1783), both in London
2. Sir Sidney George. 1893--1961, New Zealand statesman; prime minister of New Zealand (1949--57)

Holland

2
1. another name for the Netherlands
2. a county of the Holy Roman Empire, corresponding to the present-day North and South Holland provinces of the Netherlands
3. Parts of. an area in E England constituting a former administrative division of Lincolnshire
References in classic literature ?
We really did not," said the girl in holland, coaxingly.
When their brethren had gone from Holland to America, they bethought themselves that they likewise might find refuge from persecution there.
He encountered by chance in Holland a young American, with whom, for a time, he formed a sort of traveler's partnership.
After spending some time in Antwerp, we were invited to go with a part of a half-dozen persons on a trip through Holland.
There were many oil-paintings on the walls, mostly without frames, and I must mention the chandelier, which was obviously of fabulous worth, for she had encased it in a holland bag.
Cornelius de Witt, Ruart de Pulten, that is to say, warden of the dikes, ex-burgomaster of Dort, his native town, and member of the Assembly of the States of Holland, was forty-nine years of age, when the Dutch people, tired of the Republic such as John de Witt, the Grand Pensionary of Holland, understood it, at once conceived a most violent affection for the Stadtholderate, which had been abolished for ever in Holland by the "Perpetual Edict" forced by John de Witt upon the United Provinces.
She looked really glad to see me--her brown eyes beamed clear and kindly--she gave my hand another inestimable shake--the summer breezes waved her black curls gently upward from her waist--she had on a straw hat and a brown Holland gardening dress.
Among the ships that were lost in the tempest was a vessel bound from Holland, which was wrecked on the rocky shore near Dermody's place of abode.
monsoon to the coast of New Holland, and thence to these islands by the S.
The great glass over the mantelpiece, faced by the other great console glass at the opposite end of the room, increased and multiplied between them the brown Holland bag in which the chandelier hung, until you saw these brown Holland bags fading away in endless perspectives, and this apartment of Miss Osborne's seemed the centre of a system of drawing-rooms.
Sabin who travels to New York, and for whom you engage rooms at the Holland House.
I bought at a linen-draper's shop, not in the fair, but in the town of Cambridge, as much fine holland and other things as came to about seven pounds; when I had done, I bade them be sent to such an inn, where I had purposely taken up my being the same morning, as if I was to lodge there that night.