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mule,in manufacturing: see spinningspinning,
the drawing out, twisting, and winding of fibers into a continuous thread or yarn. From antiquity until the Industrial Revolution, spinning was a household industry. The roughly carded fiber was at first held in one hand and drawn out and twisted by the other hand.
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mule,hybrid offspring of a male donkey (see assass,
hoofed, herbivorous mammal of the genus Equus, closely related to the horse. It is distinguished from the horse by its small size, large head, long ears, and small hooves. There are two living species: Equus hemonius, the Asian ass, and E.
..... Click the link for more information. ) and a female horsehorse,
hoofed, herbivorous mammal now represented by a single extant genus, Equus. The term horse commonly refers only to the domestic Equus caballus and to the wild Przewalski's horse.
..... Click the link for more information. , bred as a work animal. The name is also sometimes applied to the hinny, the offspring of a male horse and female donkey; hinnies are considered inferior to mules. The mule has many donkey characteristics—long ears, a tufted tail, slender legs, small hooves, and a loud bray—but it resembles a horse in size and strength. Most mules weigh from 1,100 to 1,400 lb (500–640 kg). They lack the speed of horses, but are more surefooted and have great powers of endurance. Like donkeys, they are of a cautious and temperamental disposition and require expert handling to perform well. Both sexes are sterile. Mules have been bred as pack and draft animals since prehistoric times, and are still used throughout the world, particularly in regions where mechanized farm equipment is uncommon. They have been widely used in the United States, where they were first bred by George Washington, but are now found mainly in the southeastern states. Mules were used extensively for military transport before the advent of mechanization. They are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
..... Click the link for more information. , subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla, family Equidae.
a domestic animal; the hybrid offspring of a horse (mare) and an ass (jackass). The mule has characteristics of both parents. It has the size and swiftness of the mare. From the jackass it inherits hardiness and a capacity for work exceptional for its size. The mule is known for its long life-span (as long as 40 years) and low susceptibility to illness. It does not require special feed or maintenance. The mule is almost always sterile. Some instances have been recorded in which the mating of a female mule with a stallion or jackass has resulted in offspring. The general color of the mule is determined by the mare.
Mules are classified according to work capacity as pack or draft animals. Pack mules are 110–140 cm high at the shoulders, and draft mules up to 160 cm. Pack mules weigh 300–400 kg, and draft mules 400–600 kg. A mule can pull 18–20 percent of its weight, depending on the nature of the load and the individual characteristics of the animal. All males are castrated between the ages of 1½ and two years. Mules are first trained for work at the age of two; they carry a full load after four years of age. Mule raisers house the young and adult animals under the same conditions as horses.
Mules are widely used in Asia, Southern Europe, and North and South America. In 1960–65 the world’s mule population was 13.8 million, and in 1971, 14.7 million. In the USSR, mules are raised in Transcaucasia and Middle Asia. On Jan. 1, 1941, there were 6,300 mules in the USSR, in 1965, 3,400, and in 1971, 3,200.
REFERENCELakoza, I. I., and V. A. Shchekin. Verbliudovodstvo i osnovy oslovodstva i muloproizvodstva. Moscow, 1964.
Mule runs under the X window system, or on a Hangul terminal, mterm or exterm.
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