(22.) See Patricia Beckman, "Swimming in the Trinity: Mechthild of Magdeburg's Mystical Play," Spiritus: A Journal of Christian Spirituality 4:1 (spring 2004): 60-77; Bernard McGinn, "Three Great Beguine Mystics: Hadewijch
, Mechthild, and Marguerite," in The Flowering of Mysticism: Men and Women in the New Mysticism--1200-1350, 199-265; Amy Hollywood "The Soul as Hausfrau: Mechthild of Magdeburg's The Flowing Light of the Godhead," in The Soul as Virgin Wife: Mechthild of Magdeburg, Marguerite Porete and Meister Eckhart (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1995); and Margot Schmidt, "'die spilende minnevluot.' Der Eros als Sein und Wirkkraft in der Trinitat bei Mechthild von Magdeburg," in "Eine Hohe uber die nichts geh": Spezielle Glaubenserfahrung in der Frauenmystik?, ed.
van Delft, Cees Gorter and Peter Nijkamp examine ethnic entrepreneurship in several European cities looking at successful strategies and programs employed by public decision-makers to expand or grow businesses.
We know other connoisseurs of God's hunger: the bhakti poets of South India, medieval Christian mystics like the Flemish beguine Hadewijch
. Or, closer to us, an avid latter-day reader of the Bhagavad Gita: the French philosopher, political activist, and mystic Simone Weil.
This is what happened to "mystic" discourse after Descartes's exclusion of madness.(11) Like mystic discourse, the discourse of madness maintains a vital link between the self and the sacred, a link that had been attested to by Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross, Hadewijch
d'Anvers, Angelus Silesius, and Jacob Boehme and whose loss is lamented in the following centuries by Christopher Smart, William Blake, Thomas De Quincy, and William Butler Yeats.
She uses two medieval women mystics as models: Benedictine abbess Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) and Beguine Hadewijch
of Brabant (mid-13th century).
appears both as a beguine and a "Cistercian sister" (compare pages 86, 90, and 91, where, on the other hand, she is deemed "certainly not a nun").
There are also illuminating essays on the traditions behind better-known Middle Dutch texts: the Roman van Walewein, an artfully constructed Gawain-romance; Van den vos Reynaerde and Reynaerts historie, two important Dutch contributions to the genre of beast epic; the abele spelen (serious plays), the first secular drama of medieval Europe; the poetry of Hadewijch
, whose star looks set to rise, given the renewed interest in women mystics.
Some of the major directors of the Middle Ages included such women as Hadewijch
, Hildegard, Clare of Assisi, Mechthild, and Angela of Foligno.
One was the 12th-century Hadewijch
of Antwerp, who used "a lot of the courtly love literature of the time to talk about her relationship -- the soul's relationship -- with God.
I have never read a more penetrating analysis of the texts of Angela of Foligno, Mechthild of Magdeburg, Hadewijch
, and Marguerite Porete, whom M.