Hadrian

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Hadrian.

For popes of that name, use Adrian.

Hadrian

(hā`drēən), A.D. 76–138, Roman emperor (117–138), b. Spain. His name in full was Publius Aelius Hadrianus. An orphan, he became the ward of TrajanTrajan
(Marcus Ulpius Trajanus) , c.A.D. 53–A.D. 117, Roman emperor (A.D. 98–A.D. 117). Born in Spain, he was the first non-Italian to become head of the empire. Trajan served in the East, in Germany, and in Spain. He was adopted in A.D.
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. Hadrian distinguished himself as a commander (especially in DaciaDacia
, ancient name of the European region corresponding roughly to modern Romania (including Transylvania). It was inhabited before the Christian era by a people who were called Getae by the Greeks and were called Daci by the Romans.
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) and as an administrator. Trajan's choice of Hadrian as his successor, announced after his death, caused some discontent in Rome. His reign was vigorous and judicious, and he ruled over a prosperous and relatively peaceful era. Hadrian proved his military skill in pacifying (118) MoesiaMoesia
, ancient region of SE Europe, south of the lower Danube River. Inhabited by Thracians, it was captured by the Romans in 29 B.C. It was later organized as a Roman province, comprising roughly what is now Serbia (Upper Moesia) and N Bulgaria (Lower Moesia).
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. Abandoning Trajan's aggressively expansionist policy in Asia, he withdrew to the boundary of the Euphrates. In Palestine, however, he proved himself ruthless. His Romanizing policy aroused opposition there, especially when he excluded the Jews from Jerusalem. He put down (A.D. 132) the insurrection of Bar KokbaBar Kokba, Simon,
or Simon Bar Cochba
[Heb.,=son of the star], d. A.D. 135, Hebrew hero and leader of a major revolt against Rome under Hadrian (132–135). He may have claimed to be a Messiah; the Talmud relates that Akiba ben Joseph credited him with this title.
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 with great severity; the ensuing war (132–135) was the most difficult of his reign. In Rome he was generous in offering circuses and in giving alms to the poor, and he enlarged and reformed the civil service.

Hadrian traveled extensively in the empire, interesting himself in all the local affairs of state and adorning the provincial cities. In Germany he built great protective walls, and in Britain (where he had visited c.121) he had Hadrian's WallHadrian's Wall,
ancient Roman wall, 73.5 mi (118.3 km) long, across the narrow part of the island of Great Britain from Wallsend on the Tyne River to Bowness at the head of Solway Firth. It was mainly built from c.A.D.
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 constructed. He built a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the site of the ruined Temple at Jerusalem and renamed Jerusalem Colonia Aelia Capitolina. He also built the Arch of Hadrian in Athens, and in Rome he rebuilt the Pantheon, added to the Roman Forum, and erected a mausoleum (now Castel Sant'Angelo). His last years were spent more or less quietly in Rome and in his villa at Tibur (which has been excavated), cultivating the arts. He was learned in Greek and accomplished in poetry and music. Hadrian also patronized artists, and his love for the doomed young AntinoüsAntinoüs
, c.110–130, favorite of Emperor Hadrian, b. Bithynia. He was with the emperor constantly until on a journey in Egypt he was drowned in the Nile—some say in saving Hadrian's life.
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 was memorialized by sculptors and architects. As his successor he chose Antoninus PiusAntoninus Pius
(Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus) , A.D. 86–A.D. 161, Roman emperor (138–161). After a term as consul (120) he went as proconsul to Asia, where he governed with distinction.
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.

Bibliography

See S. Perowine, Hadrian (1987); M. T. Boatwright, Hadrian and the City of Rome (1989); A Everitt, Hadrian and the Triumph of Rome (2009).

Hadrian

, Adrian
Latin name Publius Aelius Hadrianus. 76--138 ad, Roman emperor (117--138); adopted son and successor of Trajan. He travelled throughout the Roman Empire, strengthening its frontiers and encouraging learning and architecture, and in Rome he reorganized the army and codified Roman law
References in periodicals archive ?
The dedicatory verb allows us to set the milestone within the context of Trajanic and Hadrianic patronage in western Crete.
But his generation surely remained in the shadow cast by the rapid decline of the Palestinian Jewish community following the Bar Kokhba Revolt and the Hadrianic persecutions which had decimated so much of the population and its leadership.
Rabbi Teradyon, who lived in approximately the second century, publicly defied a Hadrianic decree forbidding religious teaching.
We walked on through the dusk, through the Jewish Quarter, along the length of the recently excavated Cardo (the main street of the Hadrianic city) to a platform some two hundred yards above the great stretch of the Western Wall where hundreds--the most I've ever seen--men and women were praying in their white shawls, thirty or forty deep perhaps, with many others waiting outside for access on the eve of Yom Kippur.
6) An anti-martyrological tradition developed as, for example, among the militant nationalists during the Hadrianic persecutions (135 C.
Inscriptions of late Hadrianic date disclose that the cohort was stationed at Carvoran/Magna.
The fact that the basilica was Hadrianic reminds us that it was built at a time when the Emperor was defining borders.
Her play revolves around a stone image of Antinous that inspires an obsessive artist by its unrivaled beauty, in a historical setting that actually precedes the Hadrianic era by some 500 years.
Serialized geography was equally embodied and most visitors to the temple would already have had some experience with the concept, whether they had fingered the reverses of Hadrianic province coins or witnessed festivals in Carthage during which allegorical figures paraded by, or even had heard a list of Roman legionary names (which made a mixture of geography and virtue).
35) Visconti, by leading a reaction to Winckelmann's restrictive criteria of antiquity, was to open the way for a fresh appreciation of late imperial art, such as that of the Hadrianic era, in which Piranesi's imaginative restorations could be included.
The only Christian edifice to survive the Hadrianic overhaul was a small church atop Mt.
70-120 G94-9010991VC-05 ESA Hadrianic I92-045-08 * Form and type numbers for thin-walled ware are derived from Moevs 1973; for Eastern Sigillata A (ESA), Eastern Sigillata B (ESB), and Cypriot Sigillata, from Hayes 1985 (= EAA).