Haida


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Haida

(hī`də), Native North Americans living primarily on the Queen Charlotte Islands, off British Columbia, and on the southern end of the Prince of Wales Island, off Alaska. They speak the Haida language, which forms a branch of the family of Nadene languages (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). In physical and cultural characteristics they are closely related to the Tlingit and the Tsimshian; the three tribes belong to the Northwest Coast cultural area (see under Natives, North AmericanNatives, North American,
peoples who occupied North America before the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th cent. They have long been known as Indians because of the belief prevalent at the time of Columbus that the Americas were the outer reaches of the Indies (i.e.
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). Before the advent (early 19th cent.) of white fur traders, the Haida lived in large cedar-plank houses, fished for salmon, and hunted sea mammals; they were noted for their large and well-made dugout canoes. Their society was divided into the Raven and Eagle clans; marriage was always with someone of the opposite clan, and clan membership derived matrilineally. Their customs featured the conspicuous display of wealth (see potlatchpotlatch
, ceremonial feast of the natives of the NW coast of North America, entailing the public distribution of property. The host and his relatives lavishly distributed gifts to invited guests, who were expected to accept any gifts offered with the understanding that at a
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). They then numbered some 8,000, but by 1880 disease, particularly smallpox and venereal infections, had reduced their population to some 2,000. Today most Haida are employed in fishing, canning, and logging; many have left their island homes for mainland life. The artwork of the Haida is widely acclaimed. In 1990 there were close to 2,000 Haida living in the United States and another 2,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See C. Harrison, Ancient Warriors of the North Pacific (1925); P. Miller, Lost Heritage of Alaska (1967).

References in periodicals archive ?
Haida artist Darrel Amos, 46, has been drawing since he was 6, but his art really developed during his years in prison.
My explication centres on what I propose as a central, unifying value in Haida law: the value of respect, or, in Haida language, yah'guudang.
As recently as 60 years ago, Haida culture--once among the most sophisticated and powerful in North America--was on the brink of vanishing.
Screen the following video that presents some of these delegates sharing information about Haida culture and in particular the section that shows a critical discussion of Raven Transformation Mask: www.prm.ox.ac.uk/haida.html (this portion of the video begins at 23:42).
The social history and aesthetic value of art made by Haida people are subjects often in conflict or marked by a lack of clarity.
Richardson Ranch began in 1919, when Eric Richardson travelled to Tlell River meadows on Haida Gwaii to purchase 320 acres of property.
Thus, the Uchucklesaht Council may exercise greater discretion in its decisions than the Council of the Haida Nation, which receives its mandate directly from Haida Citizens.
In the wake of the forced relocation of indigenous youth to Canadian Residential Schools, the headstrong inhabitants of the Haida Gwaii islands (also known as the Queen Charlotte Islands, an archipelago off British Columbia's west coast, Canada) remained resilient against their oppressors, continuing to speak their native language and attempting to prevent deforestation in their lands.
Two insular subspecies of Northwestern Deermouse (Peromyscus keeni) are currently recognized on the Haida Gwaii archipelago, British Columbia.
HMS Haida has been designated as the official Canadian Forces Flagship, following a petition to Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan.
The language of "moral duty" was adopted three years later by the chambers judge in Haida, a case in which the Crown had replaced tree farm licences on territory claimed by the Haida Nation without consulting the Haida.
In this magical journey into the Haida underworld, master sea hunter Naa-Naa-Simgat is captured by a SGaana (killer whale) and taken down into a supernatural world.