Haida


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Haida

(hī`də), Native North Americans living primarily on the Queen Charlotte Islands, off British Columbia, and on the southern end of the Prince of Wales Island, off Alaska. They speak the Haida language, which forms a branch of the family of Nadene languages (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). In physical and cultural characteristics they are closely related to the Tlingit and the Tsimshian; the three tribes belong to the Northwest Coast cultural area (see under Natives, North AmericanNatives, North American,
peoples who occupied North America before the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th cent. They have long been known as Indians because of the belief prevalent at the time of Columbus that the Americas were the outer reaches of the Indies (i.e.
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). Before the advent (early 19th cent.) of white fur traders, the Haida lived in large cedar-plank houses, fished for salmon, and hunted sea mammals; they were noted for their large and well-made dugout canoes. Their society was divided into the Raven and Eagle clans; marriage was always with someone of the opposite clan, and clan membership derived matrilineally. Their customs featured the conspicuous display of wealth (see potlatchpotlatch
, ceremonial feast of the natives of the NW coast of North America, entailing the public distribution of property. The host and his relatives lavishly distributed gifts to invited guests, who were expected to accept any gifts offered with the understanding that at a
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). They then numbered some 8,000, but by 1880 disease, particularly smallpox and venereal infections, had reduced their population to some 2,000. Today most Haida are employed in fishing, canning, and logging; many have left their island homes for mainland life. The artwork of the Haida is widely acclaimed. In 1990 there were close to 2,000 Haida living in the United States and another 2,000 in Canada.

Bibliography

See C. Harrison, Ancient Warriors of the North Pacific (1925); P. Miller, Lost Heritage of Alaska (1967).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Annex contains direction for the management of places of refuge incidents that affect Haida Gwaii, including technical, logistical and resource information about specific sites that may be evaluated as potential places of refuge.
Located on the southern end of Graham Island, the village is one of the starting-points for chartered tours into the Gwaii Haanas, a protected area comprising 138 of the more than 150 islands that make up the Haida Gwaii archipelago.
Haida (G63) came later, being laid on September 29, 1941, launched on August 25, 1942 and commissioned on August 30, 1943.
There will be upgrades to the boardwalk at SGang Gwaay Llnagaay, which will allow the Haida Gwaii Watchmen and visitors to safely access the site while protecting these culturally and ecologically sensitive areas.
Since the mid 1990s, the Haida Repatriation Committee has been researching Haida collections and vigorously pursuing repatriation of their ancestral remains from museums in Canada and around the world.
These results support Gaston's (1992) observations of attendance at colonies on the southeast coast of Haida Gwaii, if we allow for slight differences in timing of breeding there and on the west coast of Haida Gwaii (see Gaston 1998).
The cedar-clad exterior of the Walter Soboleff building, built by SHI, will feature huge, forty-foot panels designed by Haida artist Robert Davidson that will give the center a dramatic facade unlike any other structure in Southeast Alaska.
The Council of the Haida Nation, however, warned the ship could run aground by Friday evening.
Haida Shafiq bowling for the Durham Cricket Board Under-15s in their friendly with Yorkshire CB Under-15s at Hartlepool.
The author, himself Haida, provides an introductory essay and explains his desire that research such as his should be available beyond academia, in particular to the Haida community.
The analysis that follows is offered in that spirit: not as a definitive description of the contents of the Haida legal mind, but as an outsider's perspective on the Haida legal system.
They describe the circumstances that brought all parties together, preparations for the visit, moments of encounter, reflecting on the visit, maintaining relationships into the future, the complicated relationships as they are and as they might be, and Haida Gwaii's work with the museum.