Haldimand, Sir Frederick

Haldimand, Sir Frederick

(hôl`dĭmənd), 1718–91, British general and colonial governor of Quebec, b. Neuchâtel canton, Switzerland. A soldier of fortune in several European armies before joining (1756) the British forces, he commanded a battalion in America in the last of the French and Indian WarsFrench and Indian Wars,
1689–1763, the name given by American historians to the North American colonial wars between Great Britain and France in the late 17th and the 18th cent.
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. Later he was military governor (1762–66) of Trois Rivières dist. in Quebec; commander in chief (1767–73) in Florida, which then extended to the Mississippi River; and commander in chief of North America (1773–74) during Thomas Gage's absence in England. His patience with the colonists during the time of the Boston Tea Party helped to prevent hostilities. Recalled to England at the opening of the American Revolution because it was considered best to have a person of English birth in chief command, he was sent (1778) to Quebec to replace Guy CarletonCarleton, Guy, 1st Baron Dorchester,
1724–1808, governor of Quebec and British commander during the American Revolution.
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 as governor. There, aided by his native knowledge of French, he succeeded in keeping the loyalty of the French Canadians when France was aiding the Americans. He efficiently organized the defenses of the province, inaugurated a system of canals, and provided admirably for the Loyalist refugees from the revolting colonies. In 1784 he returned to England where he was knighted a year later. His papers, in the British Museum, have been a leading historical source for the events of the period.

Bibliography

See biography by J. N. McIlwraith (rev. ed. 1926).

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References in periodicals archive ?
(22) Marcel Trudel, Le Regime militaire dans le Gouvernement des Trois-Rivieres, 1760-1764 (Trois-Rivieres, 1952), 61; Haldimand to Murray, 19 October 1764, PAC 1884, 82; Haldimand to Gage, quoted in Sutherland, "Haldimand, Sir Frederick:" 889.
5 (New York, 1968), 351; Sutherland, "Haldimand, Sir Frederick," 890.