Hale, George Ellery
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Hale, George Ellery,1868–1938, American astronomer, b. Chicago, grad. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1890. He founded and directed three great observatories (Yerkes, Mt. Wilson, and Palomar), each in its time the greatest in the world, and was active in organizing interdisciplinary scientific societies nationally and internationally. In 1895 he founded the Astrophysical Journal, which remains the leading publication in its field. He had a unique talent for raising funds from private sources in the days before massive governmental support of scientific research. The 200-in. (508-cm) reflector at Palomar Mt. is named the Hale telescope in his honor, and the Mt. Wilson and Palomar observatories were renamed (1969–86) the Hale Observatories. In his own work he pioneered the experimental study of the physical nature of the sun and stars. His observatories were also laboratories employing the latest in photographic and spectrographic techniques. In 1890 he invented the spectroheliographspectroheliograph,
device for photographing the surface of the sun in a single wavelength of light, usually one corresponding to a chief element contained in the sun, e.g., hydrogen or calcium; the resulting photograph is called a spectroheliogram.
..... Click the link for more information. , which led to the discovery of magnetic fields and vortices in sunspots. Although he studied in Germany with Helmholtz and Planck, served as the first professor of astrophysics at the Univ. of Chicago, and received many prizes and medals from scientific academies around the world, he never completed the requirements for his Ph.D. Besides technical monographs, he wrote popular books, including Depths of the Universe (1924), Beyond the Milky Way (1926), and Signals from the Stars (1931).
Hale, George Ellery
Born June 29, 1868, in Chicago; died Feb. 21, 1938, in Pasadena, Calif. American astronomer. Member of the National Academy of Sciences (1902).
Hale graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1890 and became a professor at the University of Chicago in 1897. He was director of the Yerkes Observatory from 1895 to 1905 and of the Mount Wilson Observatory from 1904 to 1923. Hale’s principal works are devoted to solar and stellar research. He is known for his use of the spectrohelioscope, the spectroheli-ograph, and the tower telescope to make solar observations. He predicted and verified with observational data the existence of magnetic fiel-s in sunspots. Hale was the founder and first editor of the Astrophysical Journal (1895).