Hall, Jeffrey Connor

Hall, Jeffrey Connor,

1945–, American geneticist, b. Brooklyn, N.Y., Ph.D. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, 1971. Hall was a professor at Brandeis Univ. from 1974 to 2008; he also taught (2004–12) at the Univ. of Maine. Hall was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly with Michael YoungYoung, Michael Warren,
1949–, American geneticist, b. Miami, Fla., Ph.D. Univ. of Texas, Austin, 1975. Young has been on the faculty at Rockefeller Univ. since 1978, and he was also an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute from 1987 to 1996.
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 and Michael RosbashRosbash, Michael Morris,
1944–, American geneticist, b. Kansas City, Mo., Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1970. Rosbash has been a professor at Brandeis Univ. since 1974, and he is also an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.
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 in 2017 for their discoveries of mechanisms that control the circadian rhythm on the molecular level. In 1984 Hall and Rosbash, and Young working separately, isolated a gene that controls the circadian rhythm (see rhythm, biologicalrhythm, biological,
or biorhythm,
cyclic pattern of physiological changes or changes in activity in living organisms, most often synchronized with daily, monthly, or annual cyclical changes in the environment.
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) in fruit flies. Hall and Rosbash also showed (1990) that the protein produced by the gene's messenger RNA accumulated at night and was degraded during daytime, suggesting that the accumulating protein suppressed the gene's production of messenger RNA. It was not known, however, how the protein entered the cell nucleus, where it could have that effect; that mechanism was later discovered by Young. All three scientists also determined other aspects of the genetics and molecular mechanisms driving the circadian rhythm.
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