Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



perceptions originating in the absence of a real object in mental illness and some infectious diseases, poisonings, brain traumas, severe emotional shocks, and so on.

To the patients, hallucinations are actual perceptions and not something imagined. Distinctions are made between several types of hallucinations: auditory (voices, calling of one’s name, noises, various kinds of sounds), visual (visions of people, dead persons, animals, insects, monsters, pictures, and events), olfactory (odors of rot, kerosine, perfumes, etc.), and tactile (sensations of insects on the skin, moisture, and blowing), as well as so-called general-sensation hallucinations (some object or animal is present and moving in the abdominal cavity or chest) and extracampal hallucinations (the patient “sees” outside his field of vision a person, persecutor, etc.). Some hallucinations have bright sensory coloration, imagery, and persuasiveness. They are projected outward and may be indistinguishable from real perceptions. Such hallucinations are called genuine. Other hallucinations are perceived by the inner hearing or vision of the patient, are localized in the internal field of consciousness, and are accompanied by a feeling of “accomplishment” and by the influence of some force that causes him to have visions, “loud” thoughts, and so on. These are pseudohallucinations, described at the end of the 19th century by the Russian psychiatrist V. Kh. Kandinskii.

Under the influence of hallucinations which have an imperative, command character, the patient may perform acts that are dangerous to those around him and to his own health and life. Hallucinations are an important and characteristic symptom of many mental illnesses. The pathophysiological nature of hallucinations has not been completely elucidated. Treatment is directed toward eliminating the main disease.


Popov, E. A. Materialy k klinike i patogenezu galliutsinatsii. Kharkov, 1941.
Giliarovskii, V. A. Uchenie o galliutsinatsiiakh. Moscow, 1949.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nasrallah and his coauthors gave 34 mg/day of pimavanserin to 10 patients, aged 21-77 years, with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and refractory hallucinations and delusions.
In a past editorial, I discussed how one of my patients, Bethany, who had dropped out of college and became homeless for 4 years with refractory delusions and hallucinations, recovered completely when she received clozapine.
Hallucinations can be a significant issue when it comes to maintaining quality of life for people with LBD and their caregivers.
(2013) reported that participants with auditory hallucinations found it difficult to relate to others and often thought that their auditory hallucinations impacted others' impressions of them.
Summary: New Delhi [India], July 12 (ANI): Union Minister Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore on Thursday criticised Shashi Tharoor for his recent `Hindu Pakistan` remark, saying that the Congress leader's statement is a pure hallucination.
Specifically, Grandner and his colleagues looked at the occurrence of sleep paralysis and sleep hallucinations.
People who develop hallucinations are so fearful of this being a mental health issue that they are reluctant to confide in anyone.
The team identified a cluster of five genes psychedelic mushrooms have in common after examining three species of magic mushrooms and several related fungi species that don't cause hallucinations.
Serum sodium increased during treatment and was 130 mEq/L on the day the hallucinations subsided.
It found that avatar therapy was more effective at reducing hallucinations at 12-week follow-up, and had a large effect size.
Scientists who conducted a randomised controlled trial comparing the avatar therapy to a form of supportive counselling found that after 12 weeks, the avatars were more effective at reducing auditory hallucinations, or voices inside the head.
An auditory verbal hallucination (or simply auditory hallucinations, I will use the terms interchangeably), is typically defined as a sensory (perceptual) experience of hearing a voice in the absence of a corresponding external source (1).