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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(saxaul), a genus of plants of the family Chenopodiaceae. The plants are shrubs or small trees measuring 1.5–12 m tall. The fragile young shoots are forked branching and segmented. The dense or open crown is green in the summer and dirty gray or brownish in the autumn. The opposite leaves are in the form of small colorless scales or tubercles that are slightly compressed to the stem. The flowers are bisexual and borne singly by short twigs in the axils of the scalelike bracts. The perianth consists of five tunicate leaflets that form broad wings, which lie one behind the other near the fruit. Saxauls regenerate readily by suckers and reproduce by seed. The plants live as long as 30 to 60 years.

There are ten species, distributed in semidesert and desert areas of Asia (Middle Asia, Iran, Afghanistan, northwestern China, Mongolia). The plants sometimes form forests. The USSR has three species: H. aphyllum, H. ammodendron, and H. persicum. The first two grow on salinated sands and loams. The leaves of H. ammodendron resemble tubercles. H. persicum, which grows on hilly and flat sandy areas, has needle-like leaves.

Saxaul wood is hard, brittle, and heavy. Used for fuel, it produces slightly less heat than lignite. Potash is obtained from the ashes. In the winter the green branchlets serve as fodder for camels and sheep. Forests of H. aphyllum are most productive. Saxaul is used to bind sand and to beautify cities.


Derev’ia i kustarniki SSSR, vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1951.
Leont’ev, V. L. Saksaulovye lesa pustyni Kara-Kum. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Developmental Genetic Mechanisms of C-4 Syndrome Based on Transcriptome Analysis of C-3 Cotyledons and C-4 Assimilating Shoots in Haloxylon ammodendron.
Javed, Response of Trogoderma granium (Everts) to different doses of Haloxylon recurvum extract and deltamethrin, Pak.
Laana (Haloxylon salincornicum)###34.2###15.85###3.09###32.33###51.34###37.5###11.93
Haloxylon Salicornum: Rimth, perennial woody plants
Available published studies also report that the species inhabits firm ground with moderate to sparse xerophytic vegetation such as Neurada procumbens, Dectyloctenium spp., Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Cenchrus biflorus, Cyperus rotundus, Haloxylon salicornicum, Lasiurus sindicus and Capparis decidua (Husain, 2012; Khan, 2006; Ramesh and Sankaran, 2013; Sanjay et al., 2013).
Karakalpakstan has a large experience in the desertization control, as well as in standing of various plants, especially of haloxylon. A joint activity of Uzbek and Kazakh specialists will help finding the most efficient methods," Utembayev noted.
Autres nomenclatures: Haloxylon scoparium, Arthrophytum scoparium (Pomel) Iijin., Salsola articulata Cav., Haloxylon articulatum (Cav.) (Zohary 1966, Boulos 1999, Le Houerou 1995).
Yan, "Photosynthetic characteristics of C4 desert plants Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicum under different water conditions," Acta Ecologica Sinica, vol.
Vegetation of the study area can be recognized as coastal sand dunes dominated with Ammophila arenaria and Euphorbia paralias and inland areas dominated with Haloxylon scoparium and Asphodelus aestivus [9-11].
sergenti to rodent burrows or Haloxylon (a plant that has been cultivated for reconditioning of the desert).
The soil is an alkali soil with sparse Haloxylon ammodendron, Tamarix ramosissima, and Ceratocarpus arenarius growth, as shown in Figure 2.
Xiu-Wei, "Effect of different plant growth regulators on transplanting survival ratio of haloxylon ammodendron seedling and parasitic ratio of cistanche deserticola," Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, vol.