The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a Neolithic archaeological culture (fifth and first half of the fourth millennia B.C.) widespread in what is now Dobruja in Rumania and in the vicinity of the city of Burgas in Bulgaria. It is named after the remains of a settlement near the village of Hamangia (modern Baia).

The bearers of the Hamangia culture built their settlements of subterranean, semisubterranean, and lightweight ground-level dwellings near rivers or lakes. They engaged in hunting, fishing, weaving, primitive land cultivation, and stock raising. The burials yielded vessels (polished goblets and cups), stone tools, ornaments of bone and shell, and clay figurines, including the masterpieces of prehistoric art “The Thinker” and “The Thinking Woman.” The Hamangia culture belongs to the group of Balkan-Mediterranean cultures; some of its more unique features later appear in the Gumel-niţa culture.


Fedorov, G. B.. and L. L. Polevoi. Arkheologiia Rumynii. Moscow, 1973.
Berciu, D. Cultura Hamangia, vol. 1. Bucharest, 1966.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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There are several levels of settlements, necropolises, starting with the period of the Neolithic, until the Iron Age, continuing with the Hellenistic and Roman periods; it holds specific objects for the culture of Hamangia (the 4th-2nd centuries B.C.), the place of origin of the famous clay statue "the Thinker and his pair." The Hellenistic fortress Axiopolis was first here, founded by king Lysimachos1 (Lisimah) of ancient Tracia.
They show what can be determined about whole objects given the issue of fragmentation, then describe evidence in Hamangia figurines, failures in re-fitting studies and biographical approaches to artifacts.