Hans Selye


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Selye, Hans

 

Born Jan. 26, 1907, in Vienna. Canadian pathologist.

Selye was educated in the faculty of medicine of the German University in Prague and at the universities of Paris and Rome. In 1931 he worked at The Johns Hopkins University and later at McGill University in Canada. In 1945 he became the director of the Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery at the University of Montreal.

While working with various toxic or insufficiently purified hormonal preparations, Selye discovered in 1936 that these preparations and other powerful irritants such as supercooling, infection, trauma, and hemorrhage produced similar changes in the adrenal glands, thymicolymphatic system, and gastrointestinal tract of rats. On the basis of these observations he advanced a theory of nonspecific reaction formulated in his concept of stress. According to Selye, stress is a state evoked by any strong stimuli and accompanied by a general mobilization of the body’s defense system. In developing this view, Selye introduced the concepts of a general adaptation syndrome, of adaptive hormones (hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary and of the adrenal cortex), and of diseases of adaptation (quantitative or qualitative deviations in the adaptation syndrome). He also introduced the concepts of adaptation energy as a measure of the resistance of organisms, and of local stress—selective affections caused by harmful agents to target organs, or organs with altered reactivity. Selye developed an experimental model of necrosis of the myocardium caused by disruptions of the balance of electrolytes and steroid hormones in the body; he advanced a method of preventing this condition by chemical means.

Selye’s works have dealt mainly with medical and biological problems, but they also touch on philosophy, sociology, and the psychology of scientific work. In a number of cases he has unjustifiably transferred some of his specialized concepts to a sociological plane.

Selye has been awarded honorary degrees by many universities. He is a member of international and national professional medical associations. The University of Brno (Czechoslovakia) has established a medal in Selye’s name which is awarded for contributions to general pathology and endocrinology.

WORKS

“A Syndrome Produced by Diverse Nocuous Agents.” Nature, 1936, vol. 138, p. 32.
The Stress of Life. New York [1956].
Experimental Cardiovascular Diseases, vols. 1–2. Berlin-New York, 1970.
Hormones and Resistance, vols. 1–2. Berlin-New York, 1971.
In Russian translation:
Ocherki ob adaptatsionnom sindrome. Moscow, 1960.
Profilaktika nekrozov serdtsa khimicheskimi sredstvami. Moscow, 1961.
“Sorok let nauchno-issledovatel’skoi raboty v meditsine.” Patologicheskaia fiziologiia i eksperimental’naia terapiia, 1969, no. 3.
“Nekotorye aspekty ucheniia o stresse.” Priroda, 1970, no. 1.
Na urovne tselogo organizma. Moscow, 1972.

V. I. KANDROR

References in periodicals archive ?
Cannon (1871-1945) and Austrian-born Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye (1907-1982).
En la decada de 1930 Hans Selye (1976) (5), estudiante demedicina de la Universidad de Praga, pudo concluir de sus observaciones en los enfermos, la presencia de sintomas de cansancio, agotamiento, perdida de apetito, disminucion de peso y astenia, ademas de padecer las respectivas enfermedades diagnosticadas inicialmente que la llamo "sindrome de estar enfermo".
Hans Selye pioneered investigations into the relationship between stress and health and demonstrated increased endocrine activity, ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract and changes in both lymphoid tissue and leukocyte circulation (1).
Hans Selye once stated, "It's not the stress that kills us, but our reaction to it." At the Birches Assisted Living in Clarendon Hills, Ill., residents are learning new methods for handling stress through the month-long program "Breathe: A Stress Resilience Plan by Masterpiece Living."
L'histoire de la decouverte du stress et de ses fondements biologiques est une histoire fascinante qui met au premier plan Dr Hans Selye, grande figure scientifique ayant enseigne a l'Universite de Montreal de 1945 a sa mort, en 1982.
Este concepto fue inicialmente presentado por Walter Cannon (1915) y descrito con mayor detalle por Hans Selye (1936).
The term 'stress' as it is currently used was coined by Hans Selye in 1936, who defined it as 'the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change.'
Hans Selye, uno de los maximos referentes en su estudio, definio el estres en el campo de la fisiologia como "una reaccion inespecifica del organismo frente a las exigencias ambientales" (Selye, 1936).
The Hungarian scientist, Hans Selye, who was influenced by Cannon's work, developed the concept of the General Adaptation Syndrome in 1936.
The term 'stress' was first employed in the 1930's by the endocrinologist Hans Selye. [1] Stress also indicates the consequence of the failure of an organism-human or animal to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats whether are either actual or imagined.