hantavirus


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Related to hantavirus: Ebola, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

hantavirus,

any of a genus (Hantavirus) of single-stranded RNA virusesvirus,
parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid within a protein coat. Most viruses are too small (100–2,000 Angstrom units) to be seen with the light microscope and thus must be studied by electron microscopes.
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 that are carried by rodents and transmitted to humans when they inhale vapors from contaminated rodent urine, saliva, or feces. There are many strains of hantavirus. The first to be isolated (1976) was the Hantaan virus (from the Han River in South Korea, which also gives the species its name). Hantaan virus and its related strains, Seoul virus and Puulmala virus, cause Korean hemorrhagic fever (more correctly, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome), a condition in which the capillaries of the circulatory system begin to leak blood. Although some people with the disease are nearly asymptomatic, in others it can lead to shock, acute kidney failure, and, in 10% of cases, death.

A second disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, was identified in the United States in 1993 and is caused by at least three strains of the virus. It is known to be carried by deer mice, white-footed mice, and cotton rats. This disease is much more deadly, causing flulike symptoms that can lead to fluid accumulation in the lungs and death. One of the pulmonary strains, the Sin Nombre virus (named for a Spanish massacre of Native Americans that occurred in the canyon where it was discovered), was the cause of a 1993 outbreak in the Four Corners area of the SW United States that killed 32 of 53 people known to have been infected. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurs sporadically in North America, with roughly one third of those known to be infected dying from the disease. Outbreaks of a hantavirus strain that apparently can be spread from person to person occurred in South America in 1996 and 1997. There is no vaccination for pulmonary hantavirus. Treatment includes respiratory and hemodynamic support; the antiviral drug ribavirin has been effective in some cases.

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Despite the high and increasing incidence of hantavirus infection, long-term follow-up data have not been reported for a large, representative cohort of patients.
This strain has been used in other serological surveys of hantavirus in North America (e.
The Eurosurveillance report states: "In January 2013, a male patient in North Wales suffering from acute kidney injury and clinically presenting with haemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome, tested seropositive for Seoul (SEOV) and Hantaan (HTNV) hantavirus.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was first identified in 1993 and is caused by a virus carried by wild mice.
Members of the virus genera Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) and Arenavirus (family Arenaviridae) are rodent-borne viruses with cosmopolitan distributions, primarily associated with the rodent families Cricetidae (New World) and Muridae (Old World).
Infection with PUUV, the Central European DOBV lineage DOBV-Aa, and TULV varies from moderate disease to subclinical courses, and infection with the hantavirus DOBV lineage from the Balkans, DOBV-Af, or the hantavirus species SEOV, HNTV, ANDV, and SNV affects various organs and can lead to more severe and even fatal disease (6, 11, 13, 14).
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