Knottnerus et al., "Haptoglobin polymorphism and lacunar stroke," Current Neurovascular Research, vol.
Farazmand, "Haptoglobin polymorphism in individuals with type 2 diabetic microangiopathy," North American Journal of Medical Sciences, vol.
Simon, "Unique assembly structure of human haptoglobin phenotypes 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 and a predominant Hp 1 allele hypothesis," in Acute Phase Proteins, S.
Ren et al., "Haptoglobin genotype and functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage," Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.
The haptoglobin genotypes have phenotypic, biochemical, and biophysical differences affecting their antioxidant and immunomodulating functional properties.
Therefore, the functional properties of the HP2 allele, such as a lower concentration of haptoglobin in circulation, a decreased antioxidant activity, a slow metabolism of Hp2-2Hb complexes (favoring the availability of iron) and promote a cytokine profile Th1 establishes a pro-oxidant microenvironment following the infectious process.
Jablonski et al., "Haptoglobin phenotype is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in individuals with diabetes: the strong heart study," Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.
Schmidt, "Heart rate variability is associated with haptoglobin phenotype in patients with coronary artery disease," European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, vol.
2-2 phenotype affects serum markers of iron status in healthy males.
also has antioxidant (12), angiogenic (13), and antiinflammatory effects (11,14).
APOA4, apolipoprotein A-IV; PON1, Paraoxonase 1; GC, vitamin D-binding protein; A2M, A2M protein; C4, complement C4; HP, haptoglobin
The criteria for posttreatment hemolysis (haptoglobin
and LDH levels) on day 14 were met by 8 (40%) of 20 patients.